PROGRAMS & TOOLS

PREVENTION
PROGRAMMING MATRIX

Men’s Program

The Men’s Program is a workshop for college men that educates participants about what a rape feels like, how to help a woman recover from a rape experience, how to intervene as a bystander if they observe a situation that could turn into rape, and to make the participants less likely to commit sexual assault themselves. It does so by focusing on empathy building, bystander education, and defining consent.

Authors
John D. Foubert
Image of Men’s Program
Program Name Level of Evidence Format Target Audience Special Features
Men’s Program
Supported By Evidence
  • In-person Workshop
  • Presentation
  • Undergraduate students
Workshop is designed for male-identified students.
Learning Objectives

After participation in the Men’s Program, participants will:

  • intervene as bystanders when they see a potential sexual assault situation.
  • assist survivors who come to them asking for help
    develop a sense of empathy toward rape survivors.
Methods
  • Presentation of a rape scenario: The primary distinguishing characteristic of this program is the description of a rape scenario, presented by Sergeant Dick Raymond of the Seattle Police Department (lasting approximately 17 minutes). The scenario describes a male police officer being raped at gunpoint by two men and is based on the accounts of several actual victims. The story is very graphic, with detailed physical descriptions.
  • What do victims have to do after experiencing rape? Sergeant Raymond explicitly describes many choices a victim is confronted with, both immediately after the rape and further down the road. Does the victim even acknowledge that a rape has occurred? The choice of acknowledging the incident is followed by numerous other choices: when to return to work, whether or not to press charges, and with whom to share the information.
  • Other elements of the program: The program focuses extensively on being supportive of victims and offers suggestions as to what to do if a victim comes to you. There is also a brief discussion about intimate situations between the participant and a woman. It suggests some ways to ensure that the woman is ok with and giving her consent. It also suggests ways to help change the culture.

The Men's Program utilizes multiple teaching methods: a video presentation, and an interactive dialogue on the subject of bystander prevention. Note: the interactive component requires the administrator to train individuals to present that portion.

Dosage

The program is a one-time presentation. The DVD in its entirety lasts approximately 37 minutes. Including the bystander intervention component will lengthen the program to at least 45 minutes.

Logistics

The Men's Program includes a DVD and an accompanying script with material necessary to run the program. Administrators have the option of solely using the DVD, or using it in conjunction with live presenters. At least two presenters are needed, and it is up to whomever is administering the program to train and rehearse with the presenters. The administrator can also use more presenters if desired.

Population Served

College men. The program is not specifically tailored to athletes, or fraternity members, but has been used on these audiences and there is evidence of its effectiveness on them. John Foubert's organization - 1 in 4 - also has programs specifically for college women.

Theoretical Basis For Approach

The program is based on two theories of attitude and behavior change: belief system theory and the elaboration likelihood model. Belief system theory suggests that interventions must be designed to maintain individual's self-conceptions (Grube, Mayton, and Ball-Rokeach 1994; Foubert and Newberry 2006). Thus, The Men's Program treats participants as individuals who know rape is wrong and do not want to rape, as opposed to treating men as potential perpetrators. The elaboration likelihood model  suggests lasting attitude and behavior change occurs when participants are motivated to hear a message, are able to understand it, and perceive the message as relevant (Petty and Cacioppo 1986; Foubert and Newberry 2006). Thus, The Men's Program presents a story about the rape of a male. The Men's Program format is based on research indicating programs aimed at single-sex audiences are more effective than programs aimed at co-ed audiences, and research that suggests empathy building is effective in reducing men's likelihood to commit acts of sexual violence.

Program Effectiveness

Some research indicates that college men who experience The Men's Program significantly increase their self-reported willingness to help as a bystander and their perceived bystander efficacy compared to control groups that have not undergone the program. Some studies also indicate that participants significantly decrease their self-reported rape myth acceptance compared to those that have not undergone the program (Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Foubert, et al., 2011). Some research also indicates that men who are at high risk to commit sexual assault are less likely to do so after participating in the program than high-risk men who do not participate in the program (Foubert, Tatum,  & Donahue, 2006).

PARTICIPATING COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Numerous colleges and universities use The Men's Program, including:

  • Connecticut College
  • The Citadel
  • The United States Naval Academy
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Vermont
  • University of Virginia
  • Western New England University
CONSIDERATIONS FOR ADMINIsTRATORS

Issues of gender. The graphic description of a male cop is designed to invoke feelings of empathy in the male participants towards rape victims. However, at times the dialogue suggests (and the script admits as much) that comparing a male rape to a female rape can only be so effective. The social contexts of male-male rape and male-female rape are often very different. Perhaps even more importantly, there are numerous issues that a female victim has to deal with that a male victim never will (the risk of pregnancy being the most obvious, but certainly not the only, one).  The scenario also incorporates elements that are not frequently found in common campus sexual assault settings.  For example, the rape is perpetrated by strangers rather than an acquaintance and a lethal weapon is used.

 The graphic nature of the program. Some administrators may be reluctant to present this type of story to college-aged men. The language is graphic and paints a vivid portrait of a rape that may make some participants uncomfortable.

The Men's Program is a potentially valuable tool to educate men about what rape is, how it affects victims, and how they can support a victim. The graphic story, while potentially unsettling, shows rape for the violent crime it is and emphasizes the difficult choices a victim has to make. Participants are shown that some of those choices involve options, such as deciding whether or not to prosecute, as well as routine issues that in reality can be difficult to maneuver, such as getting to and from a hospital. The program provides good context by effectively integrating statistics into the dialogue to indicate the seriousness of this issue. It also effectively emphasizes how important it is to support victims consistently while being flexible to the personal needs of the victim.

HOW TO ACCESS THIS PROGRAM

Institutions can purchase a manual for how to train others to present The Men's Program for approximately $45.  A video needed to present the program, The Police Rape Training Video, sells on Amazon for about $55.  A longer video with 80% of the program being presented (up until the bystander intervention piece) is about $150.  It can be used alongside the script, so that the DVD can do the first 80% and a live presenter or presenters can do the final, interactive bystander component.  Other institutions wish to have an on-site speaker to present the program and/or teach others to present it.  If that option is desired, contact the program author, John Foubert, at John.Foubert@gmail.com.

Sources


Foubert, J.D., Tatum, J., & Godin, E. (2010). First-year male students’ perceptions of a rape prevention program seven months after their participation: Attitude and behavior changes. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 707-715. doi:10.1353/csd.2010.0021

Foubert, J.D., Tatum, J.L., & Donahue, G.A. (2006). Reactions of first-year men to a rape prevention program: Attitude and predicted behavior changes. The Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 43, 578-598. doi:10.2202/1949-6605.1684

Foubert, J.D. & Newberry, J.T. (2006). Effects of two versions of an empathy-based rape prevention program on fraternity men’s rape survivor empathy, rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault.  Journal of College Student Development, 47, 133-148. doi:10.1353/csd.2006.0016

Foubert, J.D. & Cowell, E.A. (2004).  Perceptions of a rape prevention program by fraternity men and male student athletes: Powerful effects and implications for changing behavior.  The Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 42, 1-20. doi:10.2202/1949-6605.1411

Foubert, J.D. (2000).  The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men’s attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior.  The Journal of American College Health, 48, 158-163. doi:10.1080/07448480009595691

Foubert, J.D. & McEwen, M.K. (1998). An all-male rape-prevention peer education program:  Decreasing fraternity men’s behavioral intent to rape.  The Journal of College Student Development, 39, 548-556. Retrieved from https://works.bepress.com/john_foubert/32/ 

Foubert, J.D. & Marriott, K.A. (1997). Effects of a sexual assault peer education program on men's belief in rape myths. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 36, 257-266. doi:10.1007/bf02766271
                                                                                                                
Foubert, J.D. & Marriott, K.A. (1996). Overcoming men's defensiveness toward sexual assault programs: Learning to help survivors. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 470-472. doi:10.1353/csd.2006.0016

Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Foubert, J.D., Brasfield, H., Hill, B., & Shelley-Tremblay, S. (2011). The Men’s Program: Does it impact college men’s bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene? Violence Against Women, 17 (6), 743-759. doi:10.1177/1077801211409728