Bystander Prevention Programs and Descriptive Articles
Ahrens, C. E., et al. (2011). "Rehearsing for real life: The impact of the InterACT Sexual Assault Prevention Program on self-reported likelihood of engaging in bystander interventions." Violence Against Women 17(6): 760-776.
The interACT Sexual Assault Prevention Program is an interactive, skill-building performance based on the pedagogy of Augusto Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed. A longitudinal evaluation of this program compared pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up data from 509 university student participants. Results suggested that the interACT performance was successful in increasing participants' beliefs about the effectiveness of bystander interventions and the self-rated likelihood that participants would engage in bystander interventions in the future. Differences in both overall ratings and rates of change were noted. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
Amar, A. F., et al. (2012). "Evaluation of a bystander education program." Issues in Mental Health Nursing 33(12): 851-857.
Sexual and partner violence are widespread problems on college campuses. By changing attitudes, beliefs, and behavior, bystander education programs have been found to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a bystander education program that was adapted to a specific university setting. A convenience sample of 202, full-time undergraduate students aged 18-22 years participated in the bystander education program and completed pre- and post-test measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Paired sample t-tests were used to examine changes in scores between pre- and post-test conditions. After the program, participants' reported decreased rape myth acceptance and denial of interpersonal violence, and increased intention to act as a bystander and an increased sense of responsibility to intervene. Mental health nurses can use principles of bystander education in violence prevention programs and in providing support to survivors.
Coker, A. L., et al. (2011). "Evaluation of Green Dot: An active bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence on college campuses." Violence Against Women 17(6): 777-796.
Using a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 7,945 college undergraduates, we report on the association between having received Green Dot active bystander behavior training and the frequency of actual and observed self-reported active bystander behaviors as well as violence acceptance norms. Of 2,504 students aged 18 to 26 who completed the survey, 46% had heard a Green Dot speech on campus, and 14% had received active bystander training during the past 2 years. Trained students had significantly lower rape myth acceptance scores than did students with no training. Trained students also reported engaging in significantly more bystander behaviors and observing more self-reported active bystander behaviors when compared with nontrained students. When comparing self-reported active bystander behavior scores of students trained with students hearing a Green Dot speech alone, the training was associated with significantly higher active bystander behavior scores. Those receiving bystander training appeared to report more active bystander behaviors than those simply hearing a Green Dot speech, and both intervention groups reported more observed and active bystander behaviors than nonexposed students.
Exner, D. and N. Cummings (2011). "Implications for sexual assault prevention: College students as prosocial bystanders." Journal of American College Health 59(7): 655-657.
Prosocial bystander interventions are promising approaches to sexual assault prevention on college campuses. Objective: To assess bystander attitudes among undergraduate students at a northeastern university. Participants: A convenience sample of 188 students from 4 undergraduate classes was surveyed during regularly scheduled class sessions. Methods: Participants completed a short survey on bystander efficacy, readiness to change, and barriers to intervention prior to the start of class. Results: The majority of students were not involved in activities or programs focused on sexual assault prevention. Although students agreed that violence could be prevented, they perceived many barriers to their own participation in intervention. Conclusions: There is a need for gender-targeted prevention programming that introduces the idea of prosocial bystander intervention, with a focus on increasing self-efficacy and lowering barriers.
Garrity, S. E. (2011). "Sexual assault prevention programs for college-aged men: A critical evaluation." Journal of Forensic Nursing 7(1): 40-48.
An unacceptably large percent of women experience sexual assault during their collegiate years and efforts to eliminate sexual assault exist in various forms at numerous universities. The only way to effectively decrease the occurrence of rape on college campuses is to stop the perpetrators. This review examined established sexual assault prevention programs designed for college men to determine if an ideal educational program exists, or if one can be established, to effectively change male attitudes and behaviors about sexual assault. A library search of scientific databases yielded seven studies, published from 2000 to 2007, that met inclusion criteria. Through a variety of interventions, a measurable number of formerly held attitudes about rape myth and the role of the bystanders in an assaultive situation were effectively changed immediately postintervention in several studies. In addition, one study demonstrated sustained behavioral change. These results can effectively be used to provide education for forensic and school-based nurses to guide practice for development of educational programs to successfully change harmful attitudes and beliefs that contribute to rape.
Katz, J. and J. Moore (2013). "Bystander education training for campus sexual assault prevention: an initial meta-analysis." Violence Vict 28(6): 1054-1067.
The present meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of bystander education programs for preventing sexual assault in college communities. Undergraduates trained in bystander education for sexual assault were expected to report more favorable attitudes, behavioral proclivities, and actual behaviors relative to untrained controls. Data from 12 studies of college students (N = 2,926) were used to calculate 32 effect sizes. Results suggested moderate effects of bystander education on both bystander efficacy and intentions to help others at risk. Smaller but significant effects were observed regarding self-reported bystander helping behaviors, (lower) rape-supportive attitudes, and (lower) rape proclivity, but not perpetration. These results provide initial support for the effectiveness of in-person bystander education training. Nonetheless, future longitudinal research evaluating behavioral outcomes and sexual assault incidence is needed.
McMahon, S. (2010). "Rape myth beliefs and bystander attitudes among incoming college students." Journal of American College Health 59(1): 3-11.
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were analyzed. Methods: Participants completed revised versions of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and the Bystander Attitude Scale. Results: A higher acceptance of rape myths was reported by males, those pledging a fraternity/sorority, athletes, those without previous rape education, and those who did not know someone sexually assaulted. A greater willingness to intervene as a bystander was reported by females, those who had previous rape education, and those who knew someone sexually assaulted. Acceptance of rape myths was negatively related to willingness to intervene. Conclusions: Bystander intervention programs should include content on rape myths as well as focus on the role of gender.
McMahon, S. and V. L. Banyard (2012). "When can I help? A conceptual framework for the prevention of sexual violence through bystander intervention." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 13(1): 3-14.
The bystander intervention approach is gaining popularity as a means for engaging communities in sexual assault prevention, especially on college campuses. Many bystander programs are teaching community members how to intervene without first assisting them to identify the full range of opportunities when they can intervene. In this article, the authors review the literature on sexual violence bystander intervention and present a conceptual framework that lays out a continuum of bystander opportunities ranging from reactive situations after an assault has occurred, to situations before an assault has occurred (posing high to low risk to victims), as well as proactive situations where no risk to the victim is present. The implications of this typology are discussed in the context of program development, evaluation, and further research.
McMahon, S., et al. (2011). "Conceptualizing the Engaging Bystander Approach to Sexual Violence Prevention on College Campuses." Journal of College Student Development 52(1): 115-130.
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put forth the "engaging bystander approach" (EBA). We discuss how EBA can be used to address primary prevention and present updated versions of Banyard, Plante, and Moynihan's (2005) Bystander Attitude Scale and Bystander Behavior Scale. We then present the results from a quantitative study with 951 undergraduate students that used the updated scales to assess the willingness of incoming college students to engage in primary prevention bystander behaviors. We conclude with implications for future studies and for sexual violence prevention programs on college campuses.
Mitchell, K. S. and J. L. Freitag (2011). "Forum Theatre for Bystanders: A New Model for Gender Violence Prevention." Violence Against Women 17(8): 990-1013.
This article introduces the "Forum Theatre for Bystanders" (FTB) approach to gender violence prevention as practiced by social change groups at several midwestern universities in the United States. Largely informed by Augusto Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed and contemporary research on bystander theory, the Forum Theatre for Bystanders model offers a community-based approach that increases bystander responsibility and reduces victim blaming. The authors describe this model in detail and offer examples from their work to demonstrate its usefulness and efficacy.
Nicksa, S. C. (2014). "Bystander's willingness to report theft, physical assault, and sexual assault: the impact of gender, anonymity, and relationship with the offender." J Interpers Violence 29(2): 217-236.
This research examines bystander willingness to report three different crimes to the police or campus authorities among a college student sample (n = 295). Twelve original vignettes varied anonymity when reporting, bystander's relationship with the offender (friend or stranger), and crime type. A factorial analysis of variance showed that main effects were found for crime type, bystander's gender, and bystander's relationship with the offender; anonymity was not significant. The physical assault was the most likely to be reported (4.47), followed by theft (3.26), and sexual assault (2.36). Women were more likely than men to report each crime type, and bystanders who were good friends of the offender were less likely to report than strangers. No two- or three-way interactions were significant, but a significant four-way interaction indicated that anonymity, relationship with the offender, and bystander's gender predicted willingness to report for the sexual assault scenario.
Shotland, R. and C. A. Stebbins (1980). "Bystander response to rape: Can a victim attract help?" Journal of Applied Social Psychology 10(6): 510-527.
Investigated the sounds a woman might make that may attract the greatest amount of help. In the context of a simulated rape, the sounds that were tested were (1) a woman screaming "Help, rape, call the police"; (2) a woman screaming "Fire"; (3) the sound of a whistle; and (4) a control consisting of the sounds of the struggle without one of the above messages. 87 male and female undergraduates served as Ss. Results show that when the situation provided little information, bystanders helped more frequently to "Help, rape. . ." than to the "Fire" message. Under conditions of high information, "Fire" was the least successful message in attracting indirect help. Only a few males attempted to help directly by putting themselves at physical risk. These Ss felt assured that they could handle the physical conflict as a result of prior training (e.g., physical defense, varsity athletics). It is concluded that direct help is not probable when environmental or sociological factors lead bystanders to expect a physical confrontation with the perpetrator of the attack as a cost of interfering. (17 ref)
Bystander Programs – men
Barone, R. P., et al. (2007). "Preventing sexual assault through engaging college men." Journal of College Student Development 48(5): 585-594.
The Men's Project, the focus of this study, uses an ecological/public health model for preventing sexual violence. In this model, public health educators address the prevention of sexual assault by identifying risk factors at the individual, intrapersonal, societal and cultural levels. In this study, we examined how men's attitudes and behaviors were impacted by participating in the Men's Project. We conducted qualitative focus groups to examine the impact of the Men's Project. The focus groups were conducted on campus with participants in the Men's Project. Results show that when men had a support group, they readily challenged their sexist environment and employed effective bystander intervention strategies. This research demonstrates that participants intervened by reclaiming "cool" as nonhegemonic behaviors, articulating a counterstory to socialized traditional violent masculinity. Several methodological limitations exist and limit applicability. Research was conducted at one large public research institution in the mountain-West, therefore limiting the generalizability of the findings.
Berg, D. R., et al. (1999). "Rape prevention education for men: The effectiveness of empathy-induction techniques." Journal of College Student Development 40(3): 219-234.
Fifty-four male undergraduates (mean age of 19.2 yrs) participated in a rape prevention education program in which they listened to an audiotape of a man versus woman describing the experience of being raped (or they listened to no such audiotape). Two wks later, the students who heard the female tape reported more likelihood to engage in rape-supportive behaviors but no difference in empathy or rape supportive attitudes.
Bohner, G., et al. (2010). "Using social norms to reduce men's rape proclivity: Perceived rape myth acceptance of out-groups may be more influential than that of in-groups." Psychology, Crime & Law 16(8): 671-693.
Feedback about a reference group's rape myth acceptance (RMA) has been shown to affect men's rape proclivity (Bohner, Siebler, & Schmelcher, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 286-297, 2006). In two experiments with male university students (total N=294), this research was extended by varying the in-group vs out-group status of the reference group. Results showed that feedback about other men's RMA influenced self-reported RMA (Experiment 1) and rape proclivity (Experiments 1 and 2). Overall, participants' rape proclivity was affected by feedback about both in-groups' RMA and out-groups' RMA. The strongest reduction of rape proclivity was produced by low-RMA feedback about an out-group that participants expected to be high in RMA (Experiment 2). Implications for theory and intervention are discussed.
Casey, E. A. and K. Ohler (2012). "Being a Positive Bystander: Male Antiviolence Allies' Experiences of "Stepping Up"." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 27(1): 62-83.
As bystander approaches become increasingly prevalent elements of sexual and domestic violence prevention efforts, it is necessary to better understand the factors that support or impede individuals in taking positive action in the face of aggressive or disrespectful behavior from others. This study presents descriptive findings about the bystander experiences of 27 men who recently became involved in antiviolence against women work. More specifically, we describe the consistency with which respondents actively intervene in the speech or behavior of others, the strategies they use, and the factors they weigh as they deliberate taking action. Respondents report a complex and interrelated set of individual and contextual influences on their choices within bystander opportunities, which hold implications for both violence-specific models of bystander behavior and for prevention intervention development.
Earle, J. P. (1993). "Acquaintance rape workshops: Their effectiveness in changing the attitudes of first-year college men." Dissertation Abstracts International 54(5-A): 1694.
Fabiano, P. M., et al. (2003). "Engaging men as social justice allies in ending violence against women: evidence for a social norms approach." J Am Coll Health 52(3): 105-112.
The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design of population-based social norms interventions to prevent sexual assault. Data from this study suggest that men underestimate the importance that most men and women place on consent and willingness of most men to intervene against sexual violence. In addition, men's personal adherence to only consensual activity and their willingness to act as women's allies are strongly influenced by their perceptions of other men's and women's norms. These findings support the proposition that accurate normative data, which counters the misperception of rape-supportive environments, can be a critical part of comprehensive campus efforts to catalyze and support men's development as women's social justice allies in preventing sexual violence against women.
Flores, S. A. and M. G. Hartlaub (1998). "Reducing rape-myth acceptance in male college students: A meta-analysis of intervention studies." Journal of College Student Development 39(5): 438-448.
A meta-analysis was performed on studies evaluating interventions designed to reduce rape-supportive beliefs in order to clarify which strategies are most effective. Results indicate that human sexuality courses, workshops, video interventions, and other formats all appear to be successful strategies for reducing rape myth acceptance, although, these interventions may only have short-term benefits.
Foubert, J. D., et al. (2010). "In their own words: Sophomore college men describe attitude and behavior changes resulting from a rape prevention program 2 years after their participation." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(12): 2237-2257.
The study conducted involved assessing students from a Southeastern public university during two academic years, after their participation in an all-male sexual assault peer education program. The study findings revealed that 79% of 184 college men reported attitude change, behavior change, or both. Furthermore, a multistage inductive analysis revealed that after seeing The Men's Program, men intervened to prevent rapes from happening. Participants also modified their behavior to avoid committing sexual assault when they or a potential partner were under the influence of alcohol. Implications for future research were discussed.
Foubert, J. D. and K. A. Marriott (1997). "Effects of a sexual assault peer education program on men's belief in rape myths." Sex Roles 36(3-4): 259-268.
An all-male sexual assault peer education program focusing on how to help a survivor led to a decrease in rape myth belief among predominantly Caucasian participants immediately after and two months following a one hour program. Program participants believed fewer rape myths than the initial testing of a control group. In addition, a clear majority of participants reported a decreased likelihood of being sexually coercive as a result of attending the program. A new method of decreasing men's rape myth acceptance by learning how to help a survivor is supported.
Foubert, J. D., et al. (2010). "First-year male students' perceptions of a rape prevention program 7 months after their participation: Attitude and behavior changes." Journal of College Student Development 51(6): 707-715.
Seven months after seeing The Men's Program, a commonly used rape prevention program, 248 first-year college men responded to four open-ended questions concerning whether or not the program impacted their attitudes or behavior, particularly regarding alcohol related sexual assault. Two thirds of participants reported either attitude or behavior change during the preceding academic year due to the program's effects or that the program reinforced their current beliefs, with many describing specific incidents of either intervening to prevent a rape, or stopping themselves from engaging in risky behavior.
Gidycz, C. A., et al. (2011). "Preventing sexual aggression among college men: An evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program." Violence Against Women 17(6): 720-742.
Men and women living in randomly selected 1st-year dormitories participated in tailored single-sex sexual assault prevention or risk-reduction programs, respectively. An evaluation of the men's project is presented (N = 635). The program incorporated social norms and bystander intervention education and had an impact on self-reported sexual aggression and an effect on men's perceptions that their peers would intervene when they encountered inappropriate behavior in others. Relative to the control group, participants also reported less reinforcement for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior, reported fewer associations with sexually aggressive peers, and indicated less exposure to sexually explicit media.
Harari, H., et al. (1985). "The reaction to rape by American male bystanders." The Journal of Social Psychology 125(5): 653-658.
Simulated a rape in a realistic natural setting using 80 White male undergraduates to assess the nature of bystander intervention. The topography of the location ensured that the Ss walking to their adjacent parked cars, either alone or in a group, had 1 of 3 options: to walk away, to intervene directly, or to intervene indirectly by summoning a police officer. Data from 4 observers indicate that intervention was more frequent by groups of bystanders than by individual bystanders, and 80% of all the interventions were direct. (17 ref)
Heppner, M. J., et al. (1999). "Examining immediate and long-term efficacy of rape prevention programming with racially diverse college men." Journal of Counseling Psychology 46(1): 16-26.
The authors investigated the short- and long-term (5-month) effectiveness of a theoretically driven, programmatic rape prevention intervention on a sample of primarily White and Black college men. A racially diverse sample was included, and the potential effectiveness of both a culturally relevant and a traditional "colorblind" intervention was assessed. In contrast to earlier investigations, which have consistently reported an overall rebound of scores at the follow-up assessment, results from a hierarchical cluster analysis indicated 3 patterns of treatment response: improving, deteriorating, and rebounding. Results also indicated that Black students in the culturally relevant treatment condition were more cognitively engaged in the intervention than their peers in the traditional treatment condition.
Hong, L. (2000). "Toward a transformed approach to prevention: Breaking the link between masculinity and violence." Journal of American College Health 48(6): 269-279.
Men are disproportionately overrepresented among both perpetrators and victims of violent crime. Scholars from the men's studies movement have documented a clear link between socialization into stereotypical norms of hegemonic masculinity and an increased risk for experiencing violence. Despite this evidence, most campus prevention programs fail to recognize the link between men and violence and use only traditional approaches to violence prevention. The most that on-campus prevention programs provide are self-defense seminars for potential female victims of rape and general campus safety measures. In this article, the author describes a comprehensive, transformed approach to violence prevention. Data from a year-long case study of Men Against Violence, a peer education organization at a large university in the South, demonstrate the feasibility of meaningfully expanding male students' conceptions of manhood and appropriate gender roles and, thus, reducing the likelihood of men's engaging in sexually or physically violent behavior.
Johansson-Love, J. and J. H. Geer (2003). "Investigation of attitude change in a rape prevention program." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 18(1): 84-99.
Investigated the effect of previously held rape myth attitudes and the accessibility of those attitudes on attitude change produced by a videotape previously used in successful rape prevention programs. Participants were 151 volunteering undergraduate males at a large southern university. Analyses reveal that participants were consistent in their responding over time. These findings argue that the data are reliable. Consistent with previous research, it was found that a commercially available videotape designed to reduce rape myth attitudes was effective. Rape myth attitudes were lower at both the immediate and the subsequent (2 wks) assessments. The variables of Attitude Accessibility and previously held Rape Myth Attitude Levels were hypothesized to be related to both attitude change and memory for the material designed to change attitudes. Although rape myth attitudes were lowered, the effect was unrelated to previously held Rape Myth Attitude Level or Attitude Accessibility.
Kilmartin, C. and A. D. Berkowitz (2005). "Sexual assault in context: Teaching college men about gender." 127.
(from the book) Masculinity is one of the most powerful contexts within which sexual assault occurs, yet it is often left unaddressed in presentations on these topics. A gender-aware perspective entails an understanding of the social pressures on men to behave in culturally defined "masculine" ways, an awareness that they have choices about their behaviors, and an exploration of the consequences of their choices. A gender-aware approach to sexual-assault prevention places the behavior of rape within the context of mainstream masculine cultural ideologies and customs. The gender-aware approach has the important characteristic of fitting with the central mission of higher education: the overall intellectual development of the person. When people understand how gender and other aspects of culture operate, they begin to think more critically about the world around them, to become better at evaluating evidence, to solve problems, and to grasp "the big picture" by putting information into context. This book is intended as an aid to people who are interested in initiating or improving men's campus programming by integrating masculine gender information into their discussions and exercises.
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., et al. (2011). "The Men's Program: Does it impact college men's self-reported bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene?" Violence Against Women 17(6): 743-759.
This study considered whether a rape prevention program could reduce men's rape myth acceptance, enhance the perceived effectiveness of college men's bystander behavior, and increase men's willingness to intervene as bystanders in potentially dangerous situations. As predicted, college men who experienced The Men's Program significantly increased their self-reported willingness to help as a bystander and their perceived bystander efficacy in comparison to college men who experienced the comparison condition. Men's Program participants also significantly decreased their self-reported rape myth acceptance in comparison with comparison condition participants. The college policy and rape prevention program planning implications of these findings are discussed.
Lee, L. A. (1987). "Rape prevention: Experiential training for men." Journal of Counseling & Development 66(2): 100-101.
Describes an experiential rape prevention program involving education and efforts to increase empathic understanding of victims. Preliminary results with 24 undergraduate males indicate a shift in attitudes toward rape.
Liu, E.-H. (2011). "A study of a university-based men-only prevention program (Men CARE): Effect on attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 71(9-A): 3162.
This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups, across student affiliation and ethnicity. After the primary statistical analysis, it appeared that the workshop was having an influence on participants' attitudes about and behavior toward rape. The result demonstrates that the workshop is helpful in decreasing rape myth acceptance, increasing knowledge of sexual violence, increasing pro-social bystander attitudes, and increasing bystander efficacy.
Lobo, T. R. (2005). "Evaluation of a sexual assault prevention program for college men: Effects on self-reported sexually aggressive behavior, social perceptions, and attitudes." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 66(1-B): 562.
There is a growing body of research on the effectiveness of male-targeted sexual assault prevention programs. Most of these studies have demonstrated short-term improvements in rape supportive attitudes. However, these improvements have generally not been maintained over longer follow-up periods, and few researchers have investigated the effects of prevention programming on sexually aggressive behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a male-targeted sexual assault prevention program on behavior, attitudes, social perceptions, and judgments of consent. Social norms theory served as a theoretical basis for program evaluated in this study. The participants were 342 college men who were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. Self-reported sexually aggressive behavior, rape-supportive attitudes, perceptions of other men's attitudes about sexual aggression, and judgments of consent were assessed at pre-test, and at 3-month and 7-month follow-ups. Participants in the experimental group reported that they found the program content to be valuable, accurate, and personally relevant. However, compared to participants in the control group, they did not demonstrate any differences in rates of sexually aggressive behavior over the course of the study. In addition, group membership did not have a significant effect on changes in attitudes or social perceptions over the course of the study. At the 3-month follow-up, the experimental group participants, in comparison to the control group, demonstrated greater accuracy in their judgments of a sexually aggressive scenario, but these improvements were not maintained at the 7-month follow-up. The lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of this intervention, and other interventions, suggests that brief, one-session prevention programs may not be sufficient to produce substantial change. Programs that utilize multiple exposures to information over time may be more likely to be effective. Other implications for future research on sexual assault prevention are also discussed.
Loh, C. (2003). "Sexual assault perpetration in college men: Support for an integrative model of sexual assault and acquaintance rape." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 63(8-B): 3978.
The present study is an exploratory investigation of the interrelationships between variables that have demonstrated to be related to perpetration of sexual aggression, as well as the collective ability of these variables to predict sexually aggressive behavior. The methodology is such that participants' history of past perpetration and their beliefs, attitudes, personality, childhood sexual victimization experiences, and socialization experiences were evaluated at pretest. Participants, sexually aggressive behavior was then assessed during two follow-up periods, at 3 months and 7 months after pretest. Approximately one-third (31.2%) of participants had a history of perpetrating sexually aggressive acts after the age of 14 and prior to entering the study, 17.4% perpetrated during the 3-month follow-up period, and 12.4% perpetrated over the course of the 7-month follow-up period. The results of logistic regression analyses indicated that history of perpetration was related to perceived use of token resistance by a partner in the past, perpetration during the 3-month follow-up was predicted by history of perpetration and fraternity membership, and perpetration during the 7-month follow-up was predicted by perpetration during the 3-month follow-up period. Additionally, perpetration during the course of the study was assessed, and results indicated that history of perpetration was a significant predictor. However, several variables that have previously been demonstrated in the literature to be related to the perpetration of sexual assault were not significant in the regression analyses. The lack of findings may be related to the improved prospective methodology of the current study, as compared to previous retrospective studies. Other possible explanations for these findings may be related to limitations of the measures used, and intercorrelations between the variables proposed in the literature to be related to sexual assault perpetration. Overall, this study may have significant implications with regard to both future research in sexual assault perpetration and sexual assault prevention programming with men. Specifically, the results indicate that men with a history of perpetrating rape may constitute a distinctive group among perpetrators of sexual assault. Consequently, models of sexual assault perpetration may differ with regard to perpetration status. Finally, implications for future directions in sexual assault programming are discussed.
Masters, N. T. (2010). "'My Strength is Not for Hurting': Men's Anti-Rape Websites and their Construction of Masculinity and Male Sexuality." Sexualities 13(1): 33-46.
Acquaintance sexual assault prevention in the USA has largely comprised educational programs for women on college campuses and has left an unmet need for interventions targeted at men in the general community. Men's anti-rape websites attempt to address this need. This article describes a sample of six such sites and examines them for insights into the social discourses on masculinity and male sexuality that they both produce and reflect. Findings indicate that these sites construct alternative masculinities, using socio-sexual behavior to delineate the boundary between 'good'/non-rapist and 'bad'/rapist masculinity, and use the rhetorical strategy of othering the rapist, with a few interesting exceptions. Sites' depictions of consensual sex and rape are also briefly described. Implications of these discourses for rape prevention are discussed.
McCreary, G. R. (2013). "The impact of moral judgment and moral disengagement on hazing attitudes and bystander behavior in college males." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 74(2-A(E)): No Pagination Specified.
Over half of students involved in collegiate clubs and organizations report that they have participated in hazing activities (Allan & Madden, 2008). Prior research has shown a link between moral development and the perpetration of various anti-social behaviors, including sexual assault (Carroll, 2009), bullying among adolescents (Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara & Pastorellie, 1996) and cheating and academic dishonesty among college students (Cummings, Dyas, Maddux & Kochman, 2001). To date, no studies have examined the relationships between hazing, moral judgment and moral disengagement. This study supplemented the existing explanations for hazing by hypothesizing and testing a model in which moral judgment and moral disengagement influenced hazing-supportive attitudes and willingness to intervene as a bystander in a hazing situation. Comparisons were made between fraternity members and nonmembers. The Defining Issues Test-2, the Moral Disengagement Scale, and a pair of hazing and bullying vignettes were administered to undergraduate college students from four large research institutions in the Southeastern United States. The sample included both fraternity members (N=75) and non-members (N=125). The results indicated significant differences between fraternity members and non-members on measures of moral disengagement (t (198) = 2.22, p<.05, d = .32), moral judgment as measured by the N-2 score (t (198) = -2.10, p<.05, d = -.31), hazing-supportive attitude (t (198) = -2.73, p<.05, d = .37), and willingness to intervene as a bystander in a hazing scenario (t (198) = 2.06, p<.05, d = .30). Path analysis indicated a significant path for fraternity members between moral judgment, moral disengagement, and willingness to intervene as a bystander in a fraternity-hazing scenario compared to willingness to intervene in a bullying scenario. A test of difference in independent R2 indicated differences in the paths between fraternity members and non-members. The relationship between the constructs indicates that moral development may be a valuable tool in hazing prevention, and indicates that further research in this area is needed.
Parrot, A. (1998). "Meaningful sexual assault prevention programs for men." Anderson, Peter B [Ed]: 205-223.
(from the book) Presents recommendations for designing programs to prevent the sexual coercion of men. The author is one of the leading experts in the country on prevention of acquaintance rape of women on college campuses. She reviews formats, use of facilitators, activities, and media that can be used in programs for potential male victims and female perpetrators. The author includes samples of several exercises that promote student discussion and understanding of factors that contribute to sexual assault.
Paul, L. A. (2011). "Incorporating social norms into sexual assault interventions: Effects on belief and behavior change among college men." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 71(12-B): 7732.
A sexual assault intervention was designed using applicable research from social psychology (i.e., social norms). Undergraduate men were randomly assigned to the experimental intervention or an active control condition. Attitudinal and behavioral data were collected preintervention, post-intervention and at a one month follow-up. Significant decrements in the level of reported sexually-aggressive behaviors over time were found for participants in both conditions, and there was some evidence of attitudinal change between pre- and post-intervention. There were no significant differences between conditions on behavioral intention measures. Personal sexual history was a significant moderator of rape-related beliefs.
Schewe, P. A. (1996). "Victim empathy and rape outcome expectancies: Testing a model-based rape prevention program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 56(10-B): 5783.
The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate two model-based programs designed to reduce the amount of date rape attempted by male college students. One program, the Victim Empathy/Outcome Expectancies (VE/OE) intervention, was based on a proposed model which holds that in order to rape, men must lack empathy for their victims and believe that it is in their personal best interest to rape. The goal of this program was to help males generate or experience empathy for victims of rape and to convince them that it is in their own best interest to develop consenting sexual relationships rather than to coerce women into sexual activities. The second program, the Rape Supportive Cognitions (RSC) intervention, was based on a cognitive model which suggests that rape-supportive cognitions contribute to rape. The goal of this program was to help subjects replace rape-supportive cognitions with more pro-social cognitions. Both programs included a counter-attitudinal role-play in which subjects were instructed to convince a hypothetical male to stop raping women. Seventy-four subjects scoring in the upper quartile of the Attraction to Sexual Aggression scale (Malamuth, 1991) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (VE/OE or RSC) or to a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' scores pre- and post-treatment on the Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale (Malamuth, 1989), the Rape Myth Acceptance, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, and the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs Scales (Burt, 1980) as well as subjects' post-treatment scores on the Rape Conformity Scale (Schewe & O'Donohue, 1994). Manipulation checks indicated that subjects in the VE/OE condition retained and could use information regarding victim-empathy and the negative consequences of raping, while subjects in the RSC condition retained and could use information regarding rape-myths and sexual communication. Results indicated that both treatments were signi
Schewe, P. A. and W. O'Donohue (1993). "Sexual abuse prevention with high-risk males: The roles of victim empathy and rape myths." Violence and Victims 8(4): 339-351.
42 high-risk males, as determined by self-reported likelihood of committing sexual abuse, were randomly assigned to an empathy-treatment, a facts-treatment, or a no-treatment control group. 13 low-risk Ss served as controls. Treatment effects were assessed using Ss' pre- and posttreatment scores on the Likelihood of Sexually Abusing scale, the Rape Empathy Scale, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence scale, the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs scale, a revised version of the Sexual Experiences Survey, and a test of self-reported sexual arousal to forced vs consenting sex. In addition, posttest scores on an Asch-type conformity measure were obtained. Results of validity checks indicated that high-risk Ss differed from low-risk Ss on a number of rape-related variables, that the victim-empathy condition increased Ss' empathy, and that Ss found both treatments to be credible and helpful.
Schewe, P. A. and W. O'Donohue (1996). "Rape prevention with high-risk males: Short-term outcome of two interventions." Archives of Sexual Behavior 25(5): 455-471.
Developed and evaluated the Rape Supportive Cognitions (RSC) and the Victim Empathy/Outcome Expectancies (VE/OE), 2 model-based interventions for reducing date rapes attempted by male college students. The RSC intervention targeted commonly held false beliefs that promote or condone coercive sexual behavior, while the VE/OE intervention targeted poor victim empathy and problematic rape outcome expectancies. 74 high-risk Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian American and African American Ss (aged 18-33 yrs), from a large Midwestern university, identified by Attraction to Sexual Aggression (ASA) scores were randomly assigned to RSC or VE/OE or a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were also assessed. Results showed that both interventions were more effective than no-treatment. The RSC Ss showed clinically significant changes on 3 of the 5 measures; VE/OE Ss also showed changes but only on 1 measure.
Schewe, P. A. and W. Odonohue (1996). "Rape prevention with high-risk males: Short-term outcome of two interventions." Archives of Sexual Behavior 25(5): 455-471.
Two model-based interventions designed to reduce the amount of date rape attempted by male college students were developed and evaluated. The Rape Supportive Cognitions (RSC) intervention targeted commonly held false beliefs that promote or condone coercive sexual behavior The Victim Empathy/Outcome Expectancies (VE/OE) intervention targeted poor victim empathy and problematic rape outcome expectancies. Seventy-four high-risk subjects as determined by scores on the Attraction to Sexual Aggression scale (ASA) (Malamuth, 1989) were randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups (RSC or VE/OE) or to a no-treatment control group. Treatment effects were assessed using subjects' pre- and posttreatment scores on the ASA, the Rape Myth Acceptance, the Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, and the Adversarial Sexual Beliefs scales (Burt, 1980), as well as subjects' posttreatment scores on the Rape Conformity Assessment (Schewe and O'Donohue, 1995). Results indicated that both treatments were significantly more effective than no treatment The RSC group showed clinically significant changes on three of the five dependent measures, while the VE/OE group evidenced clinically significant changes on only one measure. This is the first well-controlled rape prevention study to demonstrate clear improvements in treated high-risk males over control group subjects.
Stein, J. L. (2007). "Peer Educators and Close Friends as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Prevent Rape." Journal of College Student Development 48(1): 75-89.
Astin's (1977, 1991, 1993) input-environment-outcome (I-E-O) model provided a conceptual framework for this study which measured 156 male college students' willingness to prevent rape (outcome variable). Predictor variables included personal attitudes (input variable), perceptions of close friends' attitudes toward rape and rape prevention (environment variable), as well as exposure to sexual assault peer educators (environment variable). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that both input and environment variables significantly influenced male college students' willingness to prevent rape. Results from this study may help campus leaders develop programs and practices that engage men in rape prevention, which may subsequently reduce incidents of sexual violence on their campuses.
Stephens, K. A. and W. H. George (2004). "Effects of Anti-Rape Video Content on Sexually Coercive and Noncoercive College Men's Attitudes and Alcohol Expectancies." Journal of Applied Social Psychology 34(2): 402-416.
Despite the growth of campus rape-prevention programs, the role of individual differences in moderating program effects has been largely ignored. We hypothesized that the effects of anti-rape videotape content--typical of such programs--would depend on men's past sexual coerciveness. After watching an anti-rape or control video, coercive (n=22) and noncoercive (n=23) men were compared on attitudes toward women, rape-myth acceptance, and sex-related alcohol expectancies. As hypothesized, effects of the videotape were moderated by coerciveness. For the noncoercives, the anti-rape video resulted in lower rape-myth acceptance and sex-related alcohol expectancy scores than the control video. Coercives--who presumably most need to be deterred--exhibited no such effects. We discuss the relevance of these findings for rape-prevention programs.
Stephens, K. A. and W. H. George (2009). "Rape prevention with college men: Evaluating risk status." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24(6): 996-1013.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and behavioral indicators, measured across three time points. Positive effects are found for rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual aggression, and behavioral intentions to rape. Only rape myth acceptance and victim empathy effects sustain at the 5-week follow-up. High-risk men are generally unaffected by the intervention although low-risk men produced larger effects than the entire sample. Results suggest rape prevention studies must assess risk status moderation effects to maximize prevention for high-risk men. More research is needed to develop effective rape prevention with men who are at high risk to rape.
Stevens, M. A. (2001). "Confusion of sex and violence: Counseling process and programming considerations for college men." Brooks, Gary R [Ed] 2(pp. 293-308): 293-308.
(from the chapter) Provides guidelines for counseling and facilitating workshops for college men that focus on issues of sexual violence. Sexual violence continues to be an important issue on college campuses. As the campus culture has become more educated about and sensitive to the issues of sexual violence, the number of reported rapes and rapelike behavior has increased. Universities face new issues and dilemmas, including the practice of the university providing education and prevention services to men accused or convicted of sexual violence. The chapter is divided into 2 sections. The 1st section provides an overview of therapeutic issues and considerations related to counseling college men who are accused or convicted or sexual violence and subsequently self-referred or mandated to undergo counseling at the university counseling center. The 2nd section provides an overview of sexual violence-prevention (rape-prevention) programs for college men.
Stewart, A. L. (2013). "The Men's Project: A Sexual Assault Prevention Program Targeting College Men." Psychology of Men & Masculinity Nov(Pagination): No Pagination Specified.
The current study presents the Men's Project, a sexual assault prevention program that targets college men. The Men's Project integrates social norms, empathy, and bystander education programs into one program for college men. Male student leaders were recruited to participate in the 11-week program for 2 hours each week. The beginning of the program introduces men to issues of gender socialization, male privilege, and sexuality, followed by a few weeks exploring the breadth and depth of sexual violence, including its emotional and psychological impacts on survivors. Finally, participants learn about bystander intervention at individual and institutional levels. Participants completed a survey before and after participation in the Men's Project. Results demonstrate that from baseline to posttest, participants reported reductions in sexism, rape myth acceptance, and gender-biased language use in addition to increases in collective action willingness, feminist activism, and bystander efficacy. Discussion centers on men's role in ending sexual violence and the need for more prevention programs targeting men. The present article demonstrates the utility of the Men's Project in engaging men to work toward ending sexual violence.
Tarrant, J. M. (1999). "Rape education for men: A comparison of two interventions." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 59(7-B): 3717.
This study examined the effectiveness of two 60-minute rape education interventions in decreasing college men's rape supportive attitudes and increasing their willingness to participate in future rape education efforts. Students were assigned to an experimental program which focused on the role of traditional masculine gender role socialization in sexual aggression, to a standard program which focused on definitions, rates of sexual assault, myths and facts, and steps to help avoid acquaintance rape, or to a control group. Measured over three time periods, results indicated that (a) masculine ideology was highly correlated with constructs representing rape supportive attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors; (b) masculine ideology was negatively correlated with likelihood of future participation in rape education; (c) men living in a fraternity reported significantly higher levels of masculine ideology and significantly lower likelihoods of future participation in rape education than men living in an all-male residence hall; (d) no difference was found between the experimental, standard, and control conditions; (e) all students, regardless of treatment condition showed significant decreases in adversarial sexual beliefs and likelihood of future participation in rape education. These results are discussed in the context of other research on rape education with men. A comprehensive model for conceptualizing the relation between culture/socialization and sexually aggressive behaviors is presented. Ideas for future research and programming for men are suggested.
Yanagida-Ishii, D. Y. (2010). "Program content in a men-only sexual assault prevention program: The relationship between factual knowledge, familiarity with a victim, and self-reported behavior." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 70(7-A): 2419.
Sexual assault prevention programs are ever-present on college and university campuses today. More recently all-male prevention programs have been empirically evaluated. However, one area that has not been extensively evaluated in design is program content. Research has yet to isolate which content items are relevantly related to participants' attitudes and behaviors. This study is a secondary data analysis that looked at data collected from an all-male sexual assault prevention program, USC Men CARE, actively being used at a private research university. This analysis examined the relationship between factual knowledge and attitudes supportive of rape myths and behaviors associated with perpetration of participants in the all-male sexual assault prevention program. The survey of 701 male participants asked for student affiliation (i.e., fraternity, athletic teams, both, or none) and self-reported behaviors. The findings indicated that having the correct factual information about sexual assaults matter to those who are not affiliated with a particular student group (fraternities or athletic teams). Interestingly, compared to any other affiliation group the participants who claim to be athletes showed they know the correct factual information about sexual assaults, but behave in manners that are more indicative of perpetration. The results are further discussed with reference to previous studies and implications for future practice and research relevant to program administrators.
Bystander Prevention – women
Avina, C. (2006). "An evaluation of a web-based sexual assault prevention program for college women." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 67(3-B): 1691.
The present study developed and prospectively evaluated a web-based sexual assault prevention program as a credible, effective, cost-effective solution to current largely ineffective prevention program. Focus groups of undergraduate females perceived the current program to target strategies that were realistic, representative, and potentially useful to dating and social situations. Three hundred twenty-nine college women were randomly assigned to an experimental or a wait-list control condition. The study prospectively evaluated high-risk alcohol use strategies, high-risk sexual communication, and sexual assault rates over a period of 12 weeks. MANOVAs were performed separately for the Intent-to Treat (IT) sample and the Completer sample to test for significant differences between the experimental and wait-list control conditions. The results suggest significant differences in risky sexual communication strategies at the nine week follow-up period for the Completer sample. Separate doubly multivariate analyses revealed significant main effects across time but not between groups for both the ITT (multivariate F(4, 290) = 6.090, p. < .05) and Completer sample (multivariate F(4, 169) = 3.657, p < .05). There was no significant difference in sexual assault rates as a result of the web-based program for the ITT or Completer sample. Although the web-based program demonstrated a small effect in risky sexual communication, it may prove to be meaningful given the additive effect of this change across an individual's lifetime and the enormous dissemination potential of the web-based program.
Bradley, S. D. (2008). "Date rape prevention in women: A controlled outcome study." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 68(9-B): 6290.
Date rape is a widespread problem, especially among college-aged women. Date rape prevention programs have appeared on college campuses nationwide. However, the effectiveness of these programs to prevent date rape remains questionable. Studies addressing this issue have usually focused on changing students' thoughts about rape. A minority of studies have investigated the success of programs designed to change behaviors associated with rape. Even fewer studies have used the actual incidence of date rape as an outcome variable. The present study examined a date rape prevention program designed to improve women's sexual assertiveness skills and decrease their involvement in behaviors associated with rape via a two hour behavioral group prevention and compared its effectiveness to the more standard "attitude change" prevention. Participants completed pre-test measures immediately preceding the prevention group and completed four-week and five-month post-prevention assessments. There were four main hypotheses for this study. First, women in the behavioral condition would have a lower incidence of new victimizations, would show a reduction in risky dating behaviors and would improve prevention-related behaviors from pre-test to follow-up. Second, women in the behavioral condition would improve more than women in the attitude condition. Finally, history of victimization and alcohol use would moderate treatment success, such that previous victims would have lower treatment success. Two hundred and ten college women participated in the initial prevention group. One hundred and sixty-nine returned for the four-week follow-up and eighty-two returned for the five-month follow-up. The hypotheses were partially supported. There were no differences between the two prevention groups with regard to new victimizations. Participants in the behavioral group reduced their reported alcohol usage, risky dating behaviors, beliefs in rape myths, and increased their sexual assertiveness and sexually assertive self-statements from pre-test to the four-week follow-up. The changes were maintained at the five-month follow-up. Participants in the attitude group increased their sexual assertiveness, decreased their risky dating behaviors, and reduced their beliefs in rape myths from pre-test to the four-week follow-up. These changes were also maintained at the five-month follow-up. Women in the behavioral condition improved more than women in the attitude condition and those changes were maintained at the five-month follow-up. Participants were satisfied with treatment. Implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Breitenbecher, K. H. (1996). "An empirical evaluation of a sexual assault prevention program addressing the issue of multiple victimization." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 56(12-B): 7039.
Research has shown that the effectiveness of a sexual assault prevention program was dependent on participants' histories of sexual victimization. Hanson and Gidycz (1993) found that a prevention program which was successful in reducing the incidence of sexual assault among women without a history of victimization was unsuccessful among women with a history of sexual victimization. The purpose of this investigation is to design and empirically evaluate a sexual assault prevention program designed to address the issue of multiple victimization. This study took place during two quarters of an academic school year. Participants in this study were 415 college women. Two hundred fifteen women participated in the treatment group; two hundred women participated in the control group. Each woman's participation in this study took place during one quarter. All women were assessed at the beginning of the quarter with respect to history of sexual assault, dating behaviors, sexual communication, and sexual assault awareness. The treatment subjects participated in a sexual assault prevention program focusing on the issue of sexual revictimization; the control subjects did not. All subjects returned at the end of the quarter, and were evaluated with respect to the following variables: incidence of sexual victimization during the course of the quarter, dating behaviors, sexual communication, and sexual assault awareness. The results suggest that the program was effective in increasing overall awareness about the problem of sexual assault. The program was ineffective, however, in reducing the incidence of sexual assault or in altering patterns of dating behavior and sexual communication among participants, regardless of sexual assault history. One interpretation of this finding is the inclusion of information on revictimization diluted the effectiveness of this program among women without a sexual assault history. An alternate possibility is that the mechanisms of revictimization
Breitenbecher, K. H. and M. Scarce (1999). "A longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of a sexual assault education program." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 14(5): 459-478.
Evaluated the effectiveness of a sexual assault education program. Participants in this study included 224 college women who were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group. Early in the academic year all women were assessed with respect to history of sexual victimization and general knowledge about sexual assault. At the time of the initial session, women in the treatment group also participated in a 1-hour sexual assault education program. Women in the control group did not participate in the program. At the end of the academic year, participants in both groups returned for a 7-month follow-up session and were assessed for knowledge about sexual assault and experience of sexual victimization during the follow-up period. Although the program was successful in increasing knowledge about sexual assault, it was not successful in reducing the incidence of sexual assault.
Breitenbecher, K. H. and M. Scarce (2001). "An evaluation of the effectiveness of a sexual assault education program focusing on psychological barriers to resistance." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16(5): 387-407.
Evaluated the effectiveness of a sexual assault education program. Ss in this study included 94 college women who were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or control group. Early in the academic year, all women responded to survey instruments assessing history of sexual victimization, general knowledge about sexual assault, dating behaviors, sexual communication, perception of risk for experiencing sexual aggression, resistance strategy, self-blame, disclosure of the experience, and reporting of the assault to the police or campus security. At the time of the initial session, women in the treatment group also participated in a 90-min sexual assault education program focusing on psychological barriers to resistance. Ss in both groups returned for a 7-mo follow-up session and responded to survey instruments again. Results indicate that the sexual assault education program was unsuccessful in influencing any of the outcome variables. Sample vignette is appended.
Christensen, M. C. (2013). "Using theatre for social change to address sexual violence against college women." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 73(12-A(E)): No Pagination Specified.
The present study focuses on the need for sexual assault prevention interventions among college student populations. A review of the literature indicates that theatre-based prevention interventions are effective in preventing sexual violence among student populations. Chapter 2 of this dissertation is a literature review synthesizing scholarship focused on using theatre of the oppressed techniques to address sexual assault against women. Chapter 3 consists of a systematic review that summarizes and synthesizes quantitative and qualitative research that explores the impact theatre of the oppressed theory and practice has on sexual assault prevention. For this project, sexual assault response providers (therapists, nurses, advocates, and educators), community members and college students were engaged in focus group interviews evaluating the first iteration of a theatre-based sexual assault prevention intervention, Not Responsible. Chapter 4 of this dissertation focuses on how the intervention was changed based upon the evaluation of the first iteration. The intervention was presented to undergraduate students. And focus group interviews were used to explore how undergraduate student audience members experienced the intervention, revolUtion, on an emotional and intellectual level. Results from each chapter have been integrated in a discussion of the findings and implications for social work practice.
Day, K. (1995). "Assault prevention as social control: Women and sexual assault prevention on urban college campuses." Journal of Environmental Psychology 15(4): 261-281.
Investigated the range and nature of individual and school sexual assault prevention strategies, the relationship of strategies to the character of actual sexual assaults on campus, and assault prevention strategies as social control. Whether and how strategies affected women's relationship to the public spaces of the campus environment, particularly the use of the physical environment, was examined. Ss were 38 college women. Findings show that schools and students did little to modify environmental conditions conducive to sexual assault. Practical strategies represent, at best, temporary and individual solutions to the problem. Existing school strategies with most potential for strategic impact (educational programs and literature), varied greatly, depending on content and audience. Several of the school strategies are seen as forms of social control because they restrict womens' full use of the campus environment.
Edwards, K. M., et al. (2014). "In Their Own Words: A Content-Analytic Study of College Women's Resistance to Sexual Assault." J Interpers Violence.
The purpose of this study was to utilize a mixed methodological approach to better understand the co-occurrence of perpetrator tactics and women's resistance strategies during a sexual assault and women's reflections on these experiences. College women were recruited from introductory psychology courses and completed both forced-choice response and open-ended survey questions for course credit. Content-analytic results of college women's written responses to an open-ended question suggested that women's resistance strategies generally mirrored the tactics of the perpetrator (e.g., women responded to perpetrator verbal pressure with verbal resistance). However, there were some instances in which this was not the case. Furthermore, a number of women expressed a degree of self-blame for the sexual assault in their responses, as well as minimization and normalization of the experience. These findings suggest that sexual assault risk reduction programs need to directly address victims' self-blame as well as create an atmosphere where societal factors that lead to minimization can be addressed.
Foubert, J. D., et al. (2010). "Effects of a rape awareness program on college women: Increasing bystander efficacy and willingness to intervene." Journal of Community Psychology 38(7): 813-827.
An experimental study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program on 279 college women that focused on learning characteristics of male perpetrators and teaching bystander intervention techniques. After seeing The Women's Program, participants reported significantly greater bystander efficacy and significantly greater willingness to help than before seeing the program. Participants outperformed a control group. Rape myth acceptance also declined among program participants. Implications for rape awareness programming are discussed.
Gidycz, C. A. and C. M. Dardis (2014). "Feminist Self-Defense and Resistance Training for College Students: A Critical Review and Recommendations for the Future." Trauma Violence Abuse.
There remains resistance to feminist self-defense and resistance training programming for women, despite (a) documented effectiveness of rape resistance strategies in avoiding rape, (b) consistently high rates of sexual victimization on college campuses, and (c) limited evidence of lasting change in sexual assault perpetration reduction within existing men's prevention programs. The current article seeks to discuss (1) the rationale for feminist self-defense and resistance training for women, (2) key components of feminist self-defense and resistance training, (3) barriers to its implementation, (4) outcomes of self-defense and resistance training programming, and (5) recommendations for future work. Such suggestions include increasing funding for large-scale self-defense and rape resistance outcome research to examine program effectiveness. Specifically, outcome research that examines the role of contextual factors (e.g., alcohol use) and women's victimization histories is needed. Finally, self-defense training and resistance training should be combined with bystander intervention and men's programs with the goal of providing synergistic effects on rape reduction.
Gidycz, C. A., et al. (2001). "The evaluation of a sexual assault risk reduction program: A multisite investigation." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 69(6): 1073-1078.
This article summarizes the results of the Ohio University Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Project, which is a program designed to reduce college women's risk for sexual assault. The program was evaluated at 2 separate universities with 762 women. Participants were randomly assigned either to the program or to the no-treatment comparison group, and they completed measures that assessed sexual victimization, dating behaviors, sexual communication, and rape empathy at the pretest and at the 2-month and 6-month follow-ups. At the 2-month follow-up, there were no differences between the groups on any of the outcome measures. However, those women who were moderately victimized during the 2-month follow-up were significantly less likely to be revictimized during the 6-month follow-up period if they participated in the program.
Gray, M. D., et al. (1990). "The effectiveness of personalizing acquaintance rape prevention: Programs on perception of vulnerability and on reducing risk-taking behavior." Journal of College Student Development 31(3): 217-220.
Compared intent to avoid risk-taking behavior related to acquaintance rape (AR) in 44 female community college students receiving a personalized AR prevention program and 26 female controls receiving a nonpersonalized AR prevention program. Pre- and posttest questionnaire results indicate that personalizing AR prevention programs significantly increased the perception of vulnerability and the intention to reduce risk-taking behaviors.
Hanson, K. A. and C. A. Gidycz (1993). "Evaluation of a sexual assault prevention program." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61(6): 1046-1052.
The purpose of this investigation was to empirically evaluate a sexual assault prevention program. Of the 360 female college students who participated in the investigation, 181 students were in the treatment group and 165 students were in the control group. Although the program was not effective in decreasing the incidence of sexual assault for women with a sexual assault history, it was effective in decreasing the incidence of sexual assault for women without a sexual assault history. The program also led to a decrease in dating behaviors found to be associated with acquaintance rape and an increase in knowledge about sexual assault for the treatment group. The implications of these results for future preventive efforts are discussed.
Hertzog, J. and R. Yeilding (2009). "College women's rape awareness and use of commonly advocated risk reduction strategies." College Student Journal 43(1): 59-73.
Despite national efforts to create awareness about acquaintance rape and substance- facilitated sexual assault on college campuses, little empirical research investigates whether college women are incorporating these messages into their social behavior. This exploratory study adds to the existing literature by investigating college women's awareness of rape drugs, incorporation of widely advocated risk reduction strategies, communication with same sex peers about risk and protective factors, and perceptions of vulnerability to sexual violence. One hundred thirty-four women at a metropolitan university in the Midwest completed the web based survey. Findings suggest alcohol use affects the incorporation of risk reduction strategies, while class standing, peer disclosure, sexual assault history and receiving sexual assault education affect perceptions of vulnerability. In addition, perceived vulnerability is positively correlated with same-sex peer communication. Implications for possible prevention initiatives and future research directions are noted.
Jouriles, E. N., et al. (2009). "Can virtual reality increase the realism of role plays used to teach college women sexual coercion and rape-resistance skills?" Behavior Therapy 40(4): 337-345.
The present study evaluated whether virtual reality (VR) can enhance the realism of role plays designed to help college women resist sexual attacks. Sixty-two female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either the Role Play (RP) or Virtual Role Play (VRP) conditions, which were differentiated only by the use of VR technology in the VRP condition. A multimethod assessment strategy was used to evaluate the effects of VR on the experienced realism of sexually threatening role plays. Realism was assessed by participant self-reports of negative affect and perceptions of realism, direct observation of participants' verbal displays of negative affect during the role plays, and measurements of participant heart rate during the role plays. Results indicated that VR can indeed heighten the realism of sexually threatening role plays. Discussion focuses on issues regarding the use of VR-enhanced role plays for helping college women resist sexual attacks.
Lawson, K. C. (2007). "Evaluation of rape prevention programming for female college students." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 67(12-B): 7381.
Acquaintance rape is a common phenomenon on American college campuses, and considerable research effort has been directed at developing effective prevention programs for both potential victims and potential perpetrators. In the current study, a didactic rape prevention program for female college students was compared to a didactic program with a behavioral rehearsal component and to a no-contact control group of female students on outcome measures of sexual communication style, dating behaviors, and sexual victimization. 305 participants completed the initial data collection packet and 104 completed the entire study. Participants who completed the entire study did not differ from those who failed to complete it, except that participants who had previously experienced unwanted sex play or attempted sexual intercourse were more likely to attend scheduled presentations. Although groups were determined by random assignment, participants in the didactic program with the behavioral rehearsal component had experienced significantly less sexual victimization at initial data collection than participants in the control group. Analysis of the outcome measures revealed no significant differences among the groups in terms of their sexual communication styles and dating behaviors. Participants assigned to the didactic and behavioral rehearsal group had experienced significantly less sexual victimization during the follow-up period than participants in the control condition. It is unclear whether this difference was due to the intervention or to the lower incidence of prior victimization experiences. Future studies should seek to decrease participant attrition in order to more accurately assess the effectiveness of rape prevention interventions with female college students.
Marioni, N. L. (2002). "Reducing sexual revictimization in college women: Processes of change in a risk reduction program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 62(10-B): 4794.
This project was part of a larger research study designed to reduce sexual revictimization among college women with sexual assault histories. Participants of the current study were women who had experienced adolescent or adult sexual assault prior to entering the study and who participated in a risk reduction program. This program was based on the most recent theories of sexual revictimization and state-of-the-art design of prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to assess change in risk factors following participation in the program and their effect on future victimization. Risk factors included in this study were sexual assault history, depression, anxiety, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, global symptomatology, self-blame, self-efficacy, sexual assertiveness, and risk recognition. Women were assessed on psychological and cognitive factors prior to and after the intervention, as well as at a 4-month follow-up. In addition, sexual victimization over the 4-month follow-up was assessed. The effect of cognitive processing of program information as it related to revictimization was also investigated. The overall study was successful in improving self-efficacy, risk recognition, and revictimization rates for program participants compared to control participants. In particular, program participants demonstrated significant decreases in non-forced and forced intercourse over the follow-up compared to control participants. The current study found that the program was successful in decreasing depression, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, global symptomatology, and self-blame, and in increasing sexual assertiveness and self-efficacy for participants. Furthermore, among women participating in the intervention, lower self-efficacy and sexual assertiveness, higher psychiatric symptomatology, and history of childhood victimization best predicted revictimization over the quarter. Method of cognitive processing was not related to revictimization over the follow-up.
Meilman, P. W. and D. Haygood-Jackson (1996). "Data on sexual assault from the first 2 years of a comprehensive campus prevention program." J Am Coll Health 44(4): 157-165.
Since 1991, student affairs personnel on one university campus have implemented a comprehensive sexual assault prevention program that includes educational initiatives, revision of policies and protocols, modification of judicial hearings, and collection of data about incidents of sexual assault. In the first 2 years of the program, 65 separate incidents were reported, providing the largest single database yet reported by one campus. These incidents consisted of 43 rapes, 18 other sexual assaults, and 4 cases in which the nature of the incident was not indicated. Most of the assaults occurred on weekends, and slightly less than half of the incidents occurred on campus. In 25% of the on-campus assaults, the assailant used no identifiable form of pressure. Three quarters of the off-campus and seven eighths of the on-campus cases involved perpetrators who were known to the victims. In the on-campus situations, first-year students were found to be particularly vulnerable. Approximately one third of all victims were incapacitated because of alcohol consumption. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed, along with suggestions for prevention programming.
Neville, H. A. and M. J. Heppner (2002). "Prevention and treatment of violence against women: An examination of sexual assault." Juntunen, Cindy L [Ed]: 261-277.
(from the book) Suggests that young adults, especially women, are particularly vulnerable to sexual assault. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to the prevention of sexual assault on college campuses, based on their extensive and ongoing research program in the area. They discuss important issues about the cultural issues, and misconceptions, related to sexual assault and describe various intervention programs that have been implemented in college settings. On the basis of their research, they present an important set of findings about the components of effective intervention programs. They then provide information on treatment approaches following rape and conclude with a call for counselors to intervene in violence against women on a systematic level.
Rowe, L. S., et al. (2012). "Enhancing women's resistance to sexual coercion: A randomized controlled trial of the DATE program." Journal of American College Health 60(3): 211-218.
Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual coercion and to provide them opportunities to practice these skills in a safe environment. Participants: One hundred thirty-nine female college students from a private university in the Southwest. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to DATE or a no-treatment control group. Sexual victimization and response to acts of sexual aggression were assessed prior to randomization, after intervention, and monthly for 3 months. Results: Women who completed DATE were less likely to be victimized than women in the control condition; those who were victimized were more likely to respond assertively. Conclusions: Assertiveness training for resisting sexual coercion holds promise for reducing sexual victimization of young women.
Rusinko, H. M. (2013). "The efficacy of verbal assertiveness training on reducing risk of sexual assault." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 73(10-B(E)): No Pagination Specified.
Sexual assault is a common problem faced by women. Research has suggested 1 in 4 women will experience a sexual assault at some point during their life (Casey & Nuris, 2006; Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998; Fisher, Cullen & Turner, 2000). College females are one of the highest risk groups for experiencing a sexual assault. Currently, self defense courses are offered on college campuses. Self defense courses have proven to reduce depression and anxiety as well as increase a participant's self esteem (Brecklin & Ullman, 2005). The current study assessed the efficacy of a novel assertiveness training program on reducing sexual assault risk. The current study had 54 female, undergraduate participants who were designated to an experimental or wait-list control condition. Participants who were given the assertiveness training program were compared to those who were not. The current study found the assertiveness training program increased general assertiveness and increased positive communication in romantic relationships. This finding has important implications for the future of sexual assault prevention programming offered on college campuses.
Senn, C. Y. (2013). "Education on resistance to acquaintance sexual assault: Preliminary promise of a new program for young women in high school and university." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement 45(1): 24-33.
While all women are at risk of sexual assault, young women are at particular risk. It is therefore imperative that at least some efforts to intervene take place before students leave high school. The development of a theoretically driven sexual assault resistance program (Assess, Acknowledge, Act) envisioned by Rozee and Koss (2001) is briefly presented. Female university (n = 88) and high school (n = 59) students participated in a quasi-experimental pilot investigation of the short term effects of the program on relevant attitudes and beliefs. Focus groups led to important refining of the curriculum. The program was successful in increasing the belief that the young women were at personal risk of acquaintance rape and could defend themselves effectively if necessary while lowering negative attitudes related to rape which could harm women if they were later a victim of sexual assault. These changes were evident for young women in both high school and university settings. The program shows promise for young women 16 and older and is now being evaluated for longer term effectiveness of key outcomes.
Senn, C. Y., et al. (2013). "Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)." Bmc Womens Health 13.
Background: More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design: The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion: The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary.
Simpson Rowe, L., et al. (2012). "Enhancing women's resistance to sexual coercion: a randomized controlled trial of the DATE program." J Am Coll Health 60(3): 211-218.
OBJECTIVE: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual coercion and to provide them opportunities to practice these skills in a safe environment. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-nine female college students from a private university in the Southwest. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to DATE or a no-treatment control group. Sexual victimization and response to acts of sexual aggression were assessed prior to randomization, after intervention, and monthly for 3 months. Results: Women who completed DATE were less likely to be victimized than women in the control condition; those who were victimized were more likely to respond assertively. CONCLUSIONS: Assertiveness training for resisting sexual coercion holds promise for reducing sexual victimization of young women.
Sochting, I., et al. (2004). "Sexual assault of women - Prevention efforts and risk factors." Violence Against Women 10(1): 73-93.
Most North American universities offer sexual assault prevention programs focusing on attitude change. However, the few program outcome evaluations suggest that these programs may not be effective. This review summarizes the research on sexual assault program evaluation. It is apparent that the most promising avenue for sexual assault prevention may be self-defense training, which is presently not an integral component of typical prevention programs. The substantial body of research on risk factors for sexual assault is also reviewed, and it is concluded that existing rape prevention programs could be improved by focusing on these factors.
Testa, M., et al. (2010). "Preventing college women's sexual victimization through parent based intervention: A randomized controlled trial." Prevention Science 11(3): 308-318.
A randomized controlled trial, using parent-based intervention (PBI) was designed to reduce the incidence of alcohol-involved sexual victimization among first-year college students. The PBI, adapted from Turrisi et al. (2001), was designed to increase alcohol-specific and general communication between mother and daughter. Female graduating high school seniors and their mothers were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to one of four conditions: Alcohol PBI (n = 305), Enhanced Alcohol + Sex PBI (n = 218), Control (n = 288) or Unmeasured Control (n = 167). Mothers in the intervention conditions were provided an informational handbook and encouraged to discuss its contents with their daughters prior to college matriculation. Consistent with hypotheses, PBI, either standard or enhanced, was associated with lower incidence of incapacitated rape in the first year of college relative to controls. Path analysis revealed support for a hypothesized indirect effects model, by which intervention increased mother-daughter communication, which predicted lower frequency of first semester heavy episodic drinking, resulting in lower rates of alcohol-involved sexual victimization in the first year of college.
Turchik, J. A., et al. (2007). "Factors predicting the type of tactics used to resist sexual assault: A prospective study of college women." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 75(4): 605-614.
The purpose of the current study was to examine how women's intentions, as well as psychological and situational factors, predicted the actual use of resistance tactics in response to a sexual assault situation over a 2-month follow-up period. Twenty-eight percent of the 378 undergraduate women who participated at the baseline assessment and returned for the follow-up session 8 weeks later were victimized over the interim period. The results suggested that women's reported use of verbally assertive tactics was predicted by the intention to use verbally assertive tactics, concern about injury, greater confidence, and feelings of being isolated or controlled by the perpetrator. The use of physically assertive tactics was predicted by increased severity of the attack, greater confidence, and feelings of being isolated or controlled by the perpetrator. The use of nonforceful tactics was predicted by intentions to use nonforceful tactics, increased self-consciousness, knowing the perpetrator prior to the assault, fears of losing the relationship with the perpetrator, and no history of childhood sexual victimization. These findings have important implications in sexual assault risk-reduction programming.
Yeater, E. A. (2002). "An evaluation of a skills-based bibliotherapy approach for the prevention of sexual assault among college-aged women." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 63(2-B): 1056.
The purpose of the current research was to develop, produce, and assess the efficacy of a skills-based bibliotherapy approach to sexual assault prevention program for college-aged women. Participants were followed prospectively during a 16-week period of time. One hundred and ten women began the study at Time 1, 104 completed Time 2, and 76 completed Time 3. The self-help was compared to a wait-list control on measures of rape myth acceptance, alcohol/drug use in dating situations, sexual assertiveness, sexual communication, and involvement in risky dating behaviors. Participants were also provided with measures that assessed self-efficacy, credibility of the material included, and motivation to utilize the techniques discussed in the self-help book. Participants in the bibliotherapy condition were required to read the contents of the book during a 4-week period. They were called for telephone interviews at bi-weekly intervals and evaluated to ensure that they are reading the material included in the book. Participants in the wait list control condition did not receive the program, but were informed at the beginning of the study that their dating experiences would be evaluated over a 16-week period of time. During the first 4 weeks, they were asked to participate in bi-weekly telephone interviews that asked specific questions regarding their dating experiences during the past 2-weeks. Control participants were informed that they would be provided with the self-help book at the end of the 16-week period. All participants were given dependent measures at the beginning, the 5th week, and the 16-week follow-up period. Results indicated that the self-help book was not effective in reducing rates of sexual victimization between groups at Time 2 and Time 3. However, a trend for victimization rates was observed at Time 3, with almost 10% more of the sexual assaults occurring in the control condition. A bibliotherapy approach to sexual assault prevention may remain a viable and cost-effective manner in which to deliver prevention programming to women. Limitations of the study and directions for future sexual assault prevention research with college-aged women are discussed.
Yeater, E. A., et al. (2004). "Sexual Assault Prevention with College-Aged Women: A Bibliotherapy Approach." Violence and Victims 19(5): 593-612.
The present research evaluated the efficacy of a skills-based bibliotherapy approach to sexual assault prevention for college-aged women. One hundred and ten participants were followed prospectively for 16 weeks. A self-help book, written by the authors, was compared to a wait-list control on several self-report measures. Results revealed significant differences between groups, with bibliotherapy participants reporting decreased participation in risky dating behaviors and improvement in sexual communication strategies across a variety of dating situations. However, results suggested that the self-help book was no more effective than the wait-list control in reducing rates of sexual victimization. Limitations of the study and directions for future sexual assault prevention research with women are discussed.
Yeater, E. A. and W. O'Donohue (1999). "Sexual assault prevention programs: Current issues, future directions, and the potential efficacy of interventions with women." Clinical Psychology Review 19(7): 739-771.
Current problems facing the primary prevention of sexual assault are reviewed. Effective sexual assault prevention programs for both males and females have been slow to develop due to the fact that the etiologies of sexual assault have not been identified. Although dissemination of prevention programs has become increasingly popular in recent years, few programs have evaluated the extent to which the constructs identified in the interventions are effective at decreasing rates of sexual assault. The authors discuss previous studies in sexual assault prevention programs, methodological and conceptual problems that currently exist in the field, pragmatic difficulties regarding program implementation and evaluation, and recommendations for future research with an emphasis on interventions with female participants. It is concluded that the long-term negative consequences often associated with sexual victimization require that effective prevention programs are developed to decrease the high rates of sexual assault that occur on college campuses.
Prevention Specific to Athletes
Berger, N. M. (1994). "An exploration of the effectiveness of an acquaintance rape prevention program designed for male intercollegiate athletes." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 54(9-B): 4907.
Caron, S. L. (1993). "Athletes as rape-awareness educators: athletes for sexual responsibility." J Am Coll Health 41(6): 275-276.
Sexual assault, including both date rape and gang rape, is an area of great concern for college students today. The University of Maine is addressing this serious national problem through a unique peer education program that enlists athletes as role models for appropriate social and sexual behavior, as well as of physical strength, agility, and stamina.
Fasting, K., et al. (2008). "Participation in college sports and protection from sexual victimization." International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 6(4): 427-441.
Some sport sociologists have argued that sport is a male-dominated institution and sexist culture in which female athletes experience various forms of discrimination, including sexual victimization from coaches and male athletes. Previous research does indicate that female athletes suffer higher rates of sexual victimization from authority figures in sport than their non-athletic counterparts in education and the workplace, although many studies fail to differentiate adequately between sexual harassment, sexual abuse, sexual assault, and other descriptions that imply variations in the severity of victimization. Researchers have also speculated that athletic participation can protect female athletes from sexual victimization through a variety of social-psychological mechanisms such as team membership, physical strength, and self-confidence. This paper reports on the first descriptive analysis to test the "sport protection hypothesis" among both female and male athletes, using cross-tabulation secondary analyses of data from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, conducted in 1995 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (N = 4,814). United States college students of traditional undergraduate age (18-24) were included in the sample (N = 2,903). Limited support for the protection hypothesis was found. Student athletes were significantly less likely to report sexual victimization during their late high school and early college years than their non-athletic counterparts. A gender gap in the pattern of reported sexual victimization also appeared between males and females across all student age groups, with females reporting more sexual victimization than males. However, no significant gender gap was found among athletes. The results are discussed in relation to student gender, athletic status, and concomitant health benefits and also to debates about agency and resilience among athletes
Holcomb, D. R., et al. (2002). "A mixed-gender date rape prevention intervention targeting freshman college athletes." College Student Journal 36(2): 165-179.
Evaluated the effects on date rape attitudes of a mixed-gender workshop given to all freshman athletes from a large eastern university. A randomized post-test only experimental design was used to compare the date rape attitudes of 56 freshman athletes who were exposed to the mixed-gender date rape workshop with those of 85 athletes not exposed to the workshop. A previously validated instrument, the 25 item Date Rape Attitudes Survey, was used as the criterion measure. Three hypotheses were tested with the following results: (1) male athletes reported attitudes that were more tolerant of date rape than those reported by women athletes, (2) freshmen athletes in the control group reported attitudes that were more tolerant of date rape than those reported by athletes in the treatment group. The 3rd hypothesis, which was tested but not supported, was that male athletes would exhibit a greater program effect than female athletes.
Moynihan, M. M., et al. (2010). "Engaging intercollegiate athletes in preventing and intervening in sexual and intimate partner violence." Journal of American College Health 59(3): 197-204.
Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control group. All completed pretest, posttest, and 2-month follow-up surveys, including assessment of rape myth acceptance, intent to engage in bystander behaviors, bystander confidence, and bystander behaviors. Results: The program worked overall and for both women and men, improved bystander confidence and intent to engage in bystander behaviors, and did not create significant backlash effects (ie, worsening of attitudes as a result of program). Conclusions: The program fits with the intent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association CHAMPS/Life Skills program regarding its focus on the overall development of student-athletes and demonstrates the promising bystander approach compatible with the 2007 American College Health Association toolkit, Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence.
Parrot, A., et al. (1994). "A rape awareness and prevention model for male athletes." Journal of American College Health 42(4): 179-184.
Emphasizes the need for rape prevention programs (RPPs) for college athletes, focusing on the importance of moral development. Laying the groundwork for RPPs is addressed, and an example of an RPP implemented with a university varsity football team is presented. The athletes' attitudes about sexual entitlement are considered. Recommendations for planning a rape awareness program are outlined, and guidelines for elements of the program are presented, including topics for discussion, provision of facts about rape conviction, and engaging techniques.
Walker, E. E., Jr. (2003). "Understanding male athlete sexual aggression: Masculinity, sexual aggression, and athletic participation." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 64(3-B): 1556.
Sexual victimization is a serious public health issue in the United States, particularly on its college campuses. Several attempts have been made to identify groups at high risks for exhibiting sexually aggressive behaviors. In the same vein, this study examines the relationship between athletic participation and sexual aggression with a focus on wrestlers. The author hypothesized that wrestling participation and athletic participation would be positively correlated with sexual aggression. However, it was also hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by masculinity (gender role conflict) and masculinity related variables (sexual entitlement and competitiveness). A one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc tests found no significant difference between Wrestlers and Non-Athletes on levels of sexual aggression at the p = .05 level. Similarly, no significant differences were found between Other Athletes and Non-Athletes at the same alpha level. However, a near significant difference (p = .058) was found between Multisport Athletes and Other Athletes. A regression analysis was also conducted, which found sexual entitlement, wrestling participation, and drinking intensity as significant predictors of sexual aggression. However, a partial correlation analysis found no mediating effects between wrestling participation and sexual aggression when sexual entitlement and drinking intensity were held constant. Recommendations for rape prevention programs were made based on these findings.
Prevention for both male and female students
Anderson, L., et al. (1998). "The effectiveness of two types of rape prevention programs in changing the rape-supportive attitudes of college students." Journal of College Student Development 39(2): 131-142.
Investigated the effectiveness of 2 rape prevention programs in changing college students' rape-supportive attitudes. 215 male and female undergraduates (aged 18-42 yrs) were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an interactive mock talk show intervention, a structured video intervention, or a control group. Ss' rape-supportive attitudes were measured before the intervention, at an immediate posttest, and at a 7-wk follow-up (n = 161) using rating scales of rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape. Results indicate that both interventions were effective in reducing rape-supportive attitudes at an immediate posttest, but that attitudes rebounded over time. Women endorsed fewer rape-supportive beliefs than men, and Ss who knew a victim of rape demonstrated less adherence to rape-supportive attitudes at each assessment than did Ss who did not know a victim of rape. Implications for future rape prevention programming are discussed.
Anderson, L. A. and S. C. Whiston (2005). "Sexual assault education programs: A meta-analytic examination of their effectiveness." Psychology of Women Quarterly 29(4): 374-388.
Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of college sexual assault education programs on seven outcome measure categories were conducted using 69 studies that involved 102 treatment interventions and 18,172 participants. Five of the outcome categories had significant average effect sizes (i.e., rape attitudes, rape-related attitudes, rape knowledge, behavioral intent, and incidence of sexual assault), while the outcome areas of rape empathy and rape awareness behaviors did not have average effect sizes that differed from zero. A significant finding of this study is that longer interventions are more effective than brief interventions in altering both rape attitudes and rape-related attitudes. Moderator analyses also suggest that the content of programming, type of presenter, gender of the audience, and type of audience may also be associated with greater program effectiveness. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Banyard, V. L., et al. (2007). "Sexual violence prevention through bystander education: An experimental evaluation." Journal of Community Psychology 35(4): 463-481.
The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as potential bystanders or witnesses to behaviors related to sexual violence. Three hundred and eighty-nine undergraduates participated and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups or a control group. Results from the research reveal that up to 2 months after participating in either a one- or three-session version of the program, participants in the treatment conditions showed improvements across measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behavior while the control group did not. Most program effects persisted at 4- and 12-month follow-ups. The program appeared to benefit both women and men. Implications and future directions for research are discussed.
Banyard, V. L., et al. (2004). "Bystander education: Bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention." Journal of Community Psychology 32(1): 61-79.
Recent research documents the problem of sexual violence across communities, often finding its causes to be embedded in community and cultural norms, thus demonstrating the need for community-focused solutions. In this article we synthesize research from community psychology on community change and prevention with more individually focused studies Of sexual violence prevention Programs and bystander behavior in emergency and crime situations. The Purpose of bringing together this research is to outline a new area of focus for sexual violence prevention: the mobilization of prosocial behavior on the part of potential bystanders. This approach has utility for increasing community receptivity to prevention messages, by decreasing resistance to them, and for increasing the likelihood of community members taking an active role in prevention and intervention. The specific case of sexual violence prevention on college campus communities illustrates this approach. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Black, B., et al. (2000). "Evaluating a psychoeducational sexual assault prevention program incorporating theatrical presentation, peer education, and social work." Research on Social Work Practice 10(5): 589-606.
A theatrical sexual assault prevention program presented by social work students on an urban university campus was evaluated to assess its influence on attitude change of audience attendees. A quasi-experimental pretest, posttest follow-up group design using a sample of 100 Ss (mean age 31.1 yrs) and a comparison group of 64 Ss (mean age 32.4 yrs) was implemented to evaluate the program's effectiveness. Posttest mean scores were significantly lower than pretest mean scores on the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Follow-up scores on 2 of the 4 subscales were significantly lower than pretest scores. It is concluded that integrating the disciplines of theater, education, and social work for prevention programming may influence attitudes and contribute to the maintenance of attitude change on some aspects of beliefs related to sexual assault.
Borden, L. A., et al. (1988). "Effects of a university rape prevention program on attitudes and empathy toward rape." Journal of College Student Development 29(2): 132-136.
Examined the effect of rape awareness and prevention programs, church attendance, and acquaintance with a rape victim on attitudes and empathy of 50 male and 50 female undergraduates. Half of the Ss received the prevention program. Ss completed a questionnaire on attitudes toward rape and a rape empathy scale before and 4 wks after the program. Results show that men were less empathic and sensitive in their attitudes toward rape than were women, and the prevention program failed to show any positive change. Neither church attendance nor personally knowing a rape victim were significantly related to an S's amount of empathy toward rape, rapists, and rape victims.
Bradley, A. R., et al. (2009). "An evaluation of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program." The Journal of Primary Prevention 30(6): 697-715.
This study evaluated the short-term effectiveness of a mixed-gender sexual assault prevention program developed for college students. Program participants (n = 177) were compared to non-program participants (n = 132) prior to the program and during a 2-week follow-up period on measures of rape myths, victim empathy, perceived negative consequences and estimated likelihood of committing rape, sexual communication, sexual assault awareness, and risky dating behavior. The prevention program was effective at increasing men's victim empathy and decreasing their adherence to rape myths but ineffective at changing women's assault-related knowledge, participation in risky dating behaviors, and sexual communication strategies. Limitations of the study and directions for future research in sexual assault prevention are addressed. Editors' Strategic Implications: This study provides an important example of the limitations of a single session prevention programming approach (even if it is well designed and executed) in addressing a systemic and pervasive problem like sexual assault on college campuses.
Branch, K. A., et al. (2013). "An Exploratory Analysis of College Students' Response and Reporting Behavior Regarding Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among Their Friends." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28(18): 3386-3399.
Over the last several decades, an extensive literature has documented the prevalence of dating violence on college campuses. As a result, initiatives to promote awareness of dating violence on college campuses have proliferated and models of bystander intervention have been developed. Bystander intervention asserts that by giving all students information concerning the prevalence and warning signs of dating violence, these individuals will say something when they see problem behavior. However, a paucity of empirical research exists concerning whether students actually report their observation of dating violence among their peers. In the present study, a sample of college freshman (n = 275) was surveyed regarding their willingness to report dating violence behaviors among their friends. Findings indicate that a slight majority of respondents report that they would report dating violence victimization among their friends to university officials (54%) and/or law enforcement (56%) while fewer indicated they would report perpetration, 38% and 42%, respectively. Importantly, respondents overwhelmingly report that they would attempt to intervene in the dating violence victimization (87%) and perpetration (84%). Implications of these findings for campus safety initiatives and bystander education models are discussed.
Brecklin, L. R. and D. R. Forde (2001). "A meta-analysis of rape education programs." Violence Vict 16(3): 303-321.
Meta-analysis of evaluation studies of rape education programs aimed at college students examined which program characteristics were related to participants' rape-supportive attitude change. Linear regression analyses revealed that: (a) published studies yielded greater attitude change than dissertations, presentations, or unpublished studies; (b) attitude change declined over time; and (c) men in mixed-gender groups experienced less attitude change after interventions than men in single-gender groups. Implications for the development of effective rape education programs are discussed.
Breitenbecher, K. H. (2000). "Sexual assault on college campuses: Is an ounce of prevention enough?" Applied & Preventive Psychology 9(1): 23-52.
This article provides a construct-by-construct review of the effectiveness of sexual assault prevention programs in modifying sexual assault-related attitudes, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. This article also discusses variables that may moderate program effectiveness, variables that may mediate program effectiveness, methodological issues, programs for special populations, and iatrogenic effects. In general, sexual assault prevention programs have been shown to be effective in producing short-term reductions in rape-supportive attitudes. There is insufficient evidence, however, to conclude that such programs are effective in reducing the incidence of sexual assault.
Briskin, K. C. and J. M. Gary (1986). "Sexual assault programming for college students." Journal of Counseling & Development 65(4): 207-208.
Describes workshops designed to promote awareness and provide education about sexual assault on college campuses. Excerpts from a myth and fact quiz about sexual assault used in the workshops are presented, and sexual assault topics that are frequently raised during the workshops are discussed. The need for an evaluation procedure and the benefits of such programs are noted. (7 ref)
Bryant-Davis, T. (2004). "Rape is . . . a media review for sexual assault psychoeducation." Trauma Violence Abuse 5(2): 194-195.
The film Rape Is. takes the audience on a powerful journey of feeling, contemplation, and education about sexual violence. The viewers walk away from the film with some key educational components. They learn that rape is a prevalent and damaging crime that affects people of all backgrounds. The audience also sees that perpetrators vary in relationship to survivor as well as in demographics and method of force. Viewers also learn the emotional, cognitive, relational, and physical effects of rape. There is a need for effective educational materials on rape prevention and intervention. This film helps to fill the need for these resources.
Carey, L. A. (2011). "Review of The men's and women's programs: Ending rape through peer education." Social Work with Groups: A Journal of Community and Clinical Practice 34(3-4): 357-358.
Reviews the book, The men's and women's programs: Ending rape through peer education by J. Foubert (2011). This book is a user-friendly, how-to text that focuses on the use of peer educators to address the complex and sensitive issues of rape prevention. It is the kind of book that should be in every Student Affairs and Resident Assistant's (RA's) office and bookshelf for use in training peer educators to provide safety programs for all incoming college students. The book provide a step-by-step handbook on developing such a dynamic program. The viewpoint of the Women's Program is to positively empower college women to help the survivors of rape and also to avoid high-risk men and situations. Once again, the audience is drawn into the program not by fear and projected rage against all males but with the power of knowledge and support. This is a book that makes group peer education the most conducive way to educate college and military young men and women about rape and sexual assault. It must be acknowledged that we cannot end the crime of rape but we can work toward reducing the alarmingly high statistics of rape by educating men and women about a crime that leaves them at risk. If you are working with young men and women and want to or are mandated to develop a prevention program.
Chrisler, J. C. and M. Segrest (2008). ""A" is for activism: Classroom-based approaches to preventing campus violence." Paludi, Michele A [Ed]: 95-98.
(create) Describes an activism assignment that the first author uses in her Psychology of Women course. The authors share project topics chosen by the students, and speak to the need for students to share their personal struggles, including experiences of acquaintance rape, attempted rape and sexual and gender harassment. Additional educational methods are provided that arose from the needs of students.
Christensen, M. (2013). "Using theater of the oppressed to prevent sexual violence on college campuses." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 14(4): 282-294.
Using theater of the oppressed as a practice method in sexual assault prevention interventions with college students is gaining in popularity. Theater of the oppressed interventions aims to change values and norms that perpetuate the acceptability of sexual assault and teach college students how to intervene in situations where sexual violence may occur. In this review, the author reviews the literature on using theater for social change as a prevention intervention. The aim of the article is to provide a synthesis of empirical studies investigating the effects and impact of using theater for social change in prevention education. Based upon this synthesis, implications for practice, policy, and research are provided.
Currier, D. M. and J. H. Carlson (2009). "Creating attitudinal change through teaching: how a course on "Women and Violence" changes students' attitudes about violence against women." J Interpers Violence 24(10): 1735-1754.
Research on violence against women has consistently revealed that rape-myth acceptance (RMA) is high correlated with rape rates and victim blaming. Other research has shown that education about violence against women is a useful strategy for lessening or stopping various types of violence, particularly rape. Using data gathered at a medium-sized public university in the Northeast, the authors examine changes in rape myth acceptance over the course of a semester among undergraduate students. Comparing students in classes having a greater or lesser emphasis on gender issues (ranging from general sociology to a course specifically addressing violence against women), the authors found significant changes in RMA among students taking a course concentrating on violence against women. The authors conclude that having college courses specifically focused on violence against women can be an effective strategy for changing attitudes about both rape and rape victims.
Duggan, L. M. (1998). "The effectiveness of an acquaintance sexual assault prevention program in changing attitudes/beliefs and behavioral intent among college students." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 59(6-B): 3119.
Sexual assault by an acquaintance or on a date is both a serious as well as a common problem on college campuses across the United States. In the 1980's, universities and colleges began to respond by creating wide scale educational programs with the goal of decreasing the attitudes and beliefs that support its occurrence. Evaluation of these educational programs is currently in its beginning stages. It was the purpose of this research to evaluate an engaging sexual assault prevention program that utilized a dramatic format enacted by student peer leaders. Three hundred and thirty-nine male and female pre-college students participated in this study. Participating in this program resulted in a variety of positive changes among the students, however less of these improvements were apparent after two months had passed. Given both societal and collegiate reinforcement of a rape supportive belief system, it is suggested that programs are developed and implemented for students both earlier as well as more often.
Fonow, M. M., et al. (1992). "Feminist rape education: Does it work?" Gender & Society 6(1): 108-121.
Analyzed attitudes about rape myths, adversarial sexual beliefs, and gender-role conservatism and evaluated the impact of rape-education intervention strategies on 582 American college students' attitudes. Using the Solomon 4-group design, 14 classes of sociology students (319 females, 263 males) were assigned to 3 treatment conditions: a live rape-education workshop, a video of the workshop, and a control group. Significant gender differences were found in Ss' attitudes on all the scales, with women being more knowledgeable about rape, less likely to blame the victim, and less accepting of adversarial sexual beliefs and gender-role conservatism. Rape-education intervention changed some attitudes about rape for both men and women.
Forst, L. S. (1994). "The effects of two acquaintance rape prevention education programs on rape-supportive beliefs among college students." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(12-A): 4367.
Foubert, J. D. (2011). Men's and Women's Programs: Ending Rape Through Peer Education.
Gibson, P. R. (1992). "An intervention designed to modify attitudes toward acquaintance rape in college students." Dissertation Abstracts International 53(2-B): 1062.
Gidycz, C. A., et al. (2001). "An evaluation of an acquaintance rape prevention program: Impact on attitudes, sexual aggression, and sexual victimization." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16(11): 1120-1138.
The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a sexual assault prevention program on college students' rape-related attitudes and experiences with sexual aggression and victimization. The participants included 1,108 college students (300 men and 808 women). Attitudes and sexual aggression and victimization experiences were assessed both prior to the program and 9 weeks following the program. Results suggested that program participants evidenced less rape myth acceptance at posttest than the comparison group. The program, however, did not have a significant effect on attitudes toward women, rape empathy, or rates of sexual aggression or victimization. Participants rated the program highly, although they did not find the information personally relevant. Implications of these findings for preventative efforts are discussed.
Gidycz, C. A., et al. (2001). "An evaluation of an acquaintance rape prevention program - Impact on attitudes, sexual aggression, and sexual victimization." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16(11): 1120-1138.
The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a sexual assault prevention program on college students' rape-related attitudes and experiences with sexual aggression and victimization. Attitudes and sexual aggression and victimization experiences were assessed both prior to the program and 9 weeks following the program. Results suggested that program participants evidenced less rape myth acceptance at posttest than the comparison group. The program, however; did not have a significant effect on attitudes toward women, rape empathy, or rates of sexual aggression or victimization. Participants rated the program highly, although they did not find the information personally relevant. Implications of these findings for preventative efforts are discussed.
Gilbert, B. J., et al. (1991). "Changing the sexual aggression-supportive attitudes of men: A psychoeducational intervention." Journal of Counseling Psychology 38(2): 197-203.
Specific, identifiable attitudes of men have been associated with sexual aggression toward women. This study was undertaken to assess a psychoeducational intervention to change these attitudes and, thus, to help prevent sexual aggression. This intervention, based on the most widely researched current model of attitude change, R. E. Petty and J. T. Cacioppo's (1986) elaboration likelihood model (ELM), was evaluated for its impact on sexual aggression-supportive attitudes of college men. A group receiving the ELM-based intervention showed significantly more attitude change than did a control group (p < .05). One month later, in an unrelated naturalistic context, intervention Ss showed evidence of continued attitude change compared with control Ss (p < .05). Measures corresponding with 3 key components of the ELM significantly predicted attitude change, further indicating the model's external validity to the domain of sexual assault-relevant attitudes.
Gill, A. M. (2004). "Evaluation of a Date Rape Prevention Program: The Peers2Peers program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 64(9-B): 4677.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Peers2Peers Date Rape Prevention Program. The Peers2Peers program is a peer educational date rape prevention program designed for freshman men and women that incorporates both didactic and experiential components. It has been offered at a large northeastern university for nine years, with no formal program evaluation. The current study assessed the effectiveness of this program to reduce the acceptance of rape myths, to reduce the use of date rape-related risk behaviors, and to increase knowledge about the problem of sexual assault. One hundred twenty-six students participated in this study, with 65 assigned to the treatment group and 61 to the control group. Students completed pretest measures of rape myth acceptance, dating behaviors, and knowledge about the problem of sexual assault. Students in the treatment group received a one-hour date rape prevention program and the control group received no intervention. Three weeks after the intervention, all participants completed posttest measures of rape myth acceptance, dating behaviors, and knowledge about the problem of sexual assault. The program was not successful for increasing students' knowledge about the problem of sexual assault, in reducing the acceptance of rape myths, or for increasing protective dating behaviors. Gender differences were found for students' level of rape myth acceptance and for students' level of date rape-related risk behavior. Women reported lower acceptance of rape myths and less date rape-related risk behavior than men. The implications of these results for program development and future research are discussed.
Gorbett, K. L. (2007). "Rape myth acceptance in college students." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 67(8-A): 2879.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between variables that may be related to rape myth acceptance in college students. Identifying variables that may be related to rape myth acceptance is essential for improving rape prevention programming. The setting chosen to examine these variables consisted of 349 students enrolled in undergraduate courses at a mid-size, Midwestern University. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the relationship between gender, year in school, previous participation in rape prevention programming, knowing a victim and/or past experiences of sexual victimization, and knowing a perpetrator and/or perpetration with rape myth acceptance. Personality constructs were utilized as covariates due to their expected influence on the dependent variable. Overall, only Openness to Experience significantly correlated with rape myth acceptance and the effect size was small. Results indicated a significant 2-way interaction for gender and year in school. The interaction revealed that at freshmen year, men showed much higher rape myth acceptance than women. Rape myth acceptance in men declined from freshmen year to senior year, but consistently remained higher than women. Rape myth acceptance in women only slightly decreased between freshmen and sophomore year, yet were significantly lower from freshmen to senior year. Although a significant interaction between gender and year in school was found, the interaction was ordinal making the main effects interpretable. In fact, results indicated a significant main effect for both gender and year in school. Specifically, men report higher rape myth acceptance than women. Also, acceptance of rape myths decreased as year in school increased. Implications of these findings and future directions for research are discussed.
Hatcher, A. P. (2010). "An evaluation of a sexual assault education program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 71(1-B): 658.
Sexually aggressive behavior, especially on college campuses, is an issue of major concern. Previous research has found that 54% of college women report being sexually victimized (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Given the scope of this problem, effective prevention strategies are necessary. Sexual assault prevention programs have included those targeting a mixed gender audience as well as gender specific programs. Research examining the effectiveness of these programs, at both post-intervention and follow-up, have provided mixed results. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a video-based sexual assault education program in decreasing rape myths, increasing victim empathy, and reducing attraction to sexual aggression among college men. In addition, the project explored variables that may predict the effectiveness of these programs, using both a within and across groups experimental design. The video-based intervention utilized for this study has demonstrated effectiveness (O'Donohue, Yeater, & Fanetti, 2003). The current study aimed to provide additional evidence to support previous work, and to expand the investigation of the impact of the intervention. A total of 49 male undergraduate students participated in the study and all enrolled participants received the video-based intervention; however, a pre-delay control condition was used. The effectiveness of the sexual assault education program was assessed using measures of rape myth acceptance, empathy, and attraction to sexual aggression. Variables hypothesized to influence the effectiveness of the program were hypermasculinity, psychopathic traits, and alexithymia. Results indicated that the video-based sexual assault education program was effective in decreasing participant's attraction to sexual aggression and increasing participant's rejection of rape myths and victim empathy. The program was also effective at reducing participants' self-reported likelihood to force a woman to do something sexual that she does not want to do. Hypermasculinity, alexithymia, and psychopathy predicted change in empathy scores from pre- to post-intervention as measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980). Implications for understanding the complex role of empathy, both general and victim specific, in the prevention of sexually aggressive behavior are discussed, as are the roles of hypermasculinity and rape myth acceptance in the commission of sexually aggressive behavior.
Jensen, L. A. (1994). "College students' attitudes toward acquaintance rape: The effects of a prevention intervention using cognitive dissonance theory." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 54(8-A): 3206.
Johnson, K. (2011). "Review of "Violence goes to college: The authoritative guide to prevention and intervention, 2nd. Ed."." International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 13(3): 198-200.
Reviews the book, Violence Goes to College: The Authoritative Guide to Prevention and Intervention, 2nd. Ed by John Nicolett, Sally Spencer-Thomas, and Christopher Bollinger (2010). The authors point out a dilemma common to all public agencies: how to assist communities in building resilience and preparedness for bad things without creating instability and panic? While they note that violence threatens campuses in a variety of forms, they propose a conceptualization that highlights a common element: on many levels, violence can be best described as a virus. In Part I they present concepts basic to understanding campus violence, including a formula and the elements and issues of response. The chapters in Part II provide general prevention strategies and capacity building for managing college violence. The separate chapters in Part 3 provide a more comprehensive look at the types of violence on campuses: sexual assault, suicide, hate crimes and lesser forms of hateful violence, hazing, avenger violence, rioting, homicide and non-sexual assault, and arson and bombing. All in all Violence Goes To College presents a surprisingly comprehensive and useful addition to the professional arsenal of those who study, work in, or are eventually asked to respond to college campuses following violence.
Jordan, J. B. (2011). "Examining the effects of two sexual assault/date rape interventions in a population of college freshmen." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 71(7-A): 2361.
Rape is committed more often than any other violent crime on college campuses. Over the years, various interventions have been developed to educate and positively change college students' attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding sexual assault and date rape. Common educational strategies in the sexual assault and date rape programs include the use of films and/or peer educators to help dispel commonly held date rape myths, to improve attitudes and/or knowledge of rape, to decrease rape-related behavioral intentions, to improve communication about sexual decisions, and to increase self-efficacy towards resisting an unwanted sexual experience. However, many intervention studies lack evaluation data to demonstrate the effectiveness of these programs on college campuses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two experimental conditions in a sample of freshmen students at the University of Maryland, College Park. One intervention group received a sexual assault/date rape educational film followed by participating in a peer-led discussion; the second intervention group received only a peer education presentation; and the control group received no treatment. Pretest and four- to six-week posttest evaluation surveys were administered to participants to determine the effects of the interventions on attitudes towards rape, rape-related behavioral intentions, and sexual communication self-efficacy. The statistical methods used to analyze these data were paired t-tests and nested ANCOVA models. In addition, a Process Evaluation Survey was also administered to the intervention groups immediately upon their completion to capture an overall assessment of the interventions. Lastly, the peer educators delivering these programs completed evaluations after each presentation. Both intervention groups were found to have statistically significant increases in anti-rape attitudes at posttest, with females reporting higher anti-rape attitude scores compared to males in both interventions. Increases in anti-rape behavioral intentions and sexual communication self-efficacy scores were also reported; however, these changes were not statistically significant compared to the control group at posttest. The quantitative and qualitative data collected from the Process Evaluation Surveys and the Peer Educator Evaluations provided further guidance on how to improve the interventions.
Joseph, J. S., et al. (2013). "Addressing sexual assault within social systems: System justification as a barrier to college prevention efforts." Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 22(5): 493-509.
Sexual assault perpetrated by men against women is a distressingly common occurrence, particularly on college campuses. One of the barriers to assault prevention efforts is the general perception of violence against women as an unwanted yet implicitly tolerated aspect of the status quo. Drawing on system justification theory, a concept used to explain why individuals accept aspects of their social systems that are objectively unjust, the mechanisms that perpetuate sexual assault are examined. Furthermore, this theory is used to examine current prevention efforts on college campuses and suggestions for modifications to these programs will be made.
Katz, J. and M. DuBois (2013). "The Sexual Assault Teach In Program: Building Constructive Campus-Wide Discussions to Inspire Change." Journal of College Student Development 54(6): 654-657.
To begin to address the problem of campus sexual assault, we conducted a Teach In, an educational forum used to explore complex social problems. All students, faculty, and staff at our small liberal arts college were invited to participate. This paper summarizes our Teach In program, goals, and methods. By engaging in constructive, informed discussions, we ended the general silence about this problem. By considering multiple sources of knowledge, participants expanded their understandings of campus sexual assault. Outcome data suggest that many participants began planning constructive action. The development of collaborative relationships through the Teach In program will enhance our future work promoting awareness and safety.
Klaw, E. L., et al. (2005). "Challenging Rape Culture: Awareness, Emotion and Action Through Campus Acquaintance Rape Education." Women & Therapy 28(2): 47-63.
This study builds on the growing body of literature pertaining to the effects of rape prevention education on college students. Interviews and focus groups were used to explore college students' experiences of undergoing intensive semester-long rape prevention training. The findings of the current study suggest that college student participants developed rape consciousness, and that this shift involved cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes that are similar to those involved in the development of feminist identity. The authors conclude that intensive, sustained rape education efforts play a vital role in dismantling rape supportive culture.
Kress, V. E., et al. (2006). "Evaluation of the Impact of a Coeducational Sexual Assault Prevention Program on College Students' Rape Myth Attitudes." Journal of College Counseling 9(2): 148-157.
The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance attitudes. Implications of the findings for college counselors and directions for future research are discussed.
Krulewitz, J. E. and A. S. Kahn (1983). "Preferences for rape reduction strategies." Psychology of Women Quarterly 7(4): 301-312.
Examined the effects of 2 S variables (sex and feminist attitudes, as measured by the FEM Scale), and 2 strategy variables (strategy aggressiveness and locus of responsibility for change) on the perceived effectiveness and desirability of 4 rape reduction strategies. 53 female and 36 male undergraduates were Ss. Although women rated all strategies as more effective and desirable than did men, attitude toward sex roles was a more pervasive determinant of patterns of perceived effectiveness and desirability than was S sex. Aggressive strategies were rated as more effective than nonaggressive strategies, and strategies placing the locus of responsibility for change on women were considered more effective than strategies requiring men and society to take action. Strategies that were consistent with sex-role stereotypes (women avoiding rape by passive behavior, and men and society fighting rape by aggressive treatment of rapists) were seen as more effective than nonstereotypic strategies. Profeminists found the nonstereotypic strategies to be more desirable, however, and they also rated as relatively more desirable those strategies that placed responsibility for change on men and society. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of sex-role attitudes in reducing rape. (24 ref)
Lafrance, D. E., et al. (2012). ""Yes means yes:" A new approach to sexual assault prevention and positive sexuality promotion." American Journal of Sexuality Education 7(4): 445-460.
"Yes Means Yes" (YMY) is an interdisciplinary, noncredit, five-week, positive sexuality seminar offered at a small liberal arts college as part of a campus-wide initiative to improve students' relationship skills and behaviors. Most university campuses employ some sort of sexual assault prevention program to help protect students from problematic sexual interactions. This course focuses on helping students decide what they would like from their relationships in a collaborative seminar format, rather than focusing only on what they should avoid. Feedback from the class has been overwhelmingly positive, and it is likely that students at other campuses could benefit from this program.
Layman-Guadalupe, M. J. (1997). "Evaluation of an acquaintance rape awareness program: Differential impact on acknowledged and unacknowledged rape victims." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 57(8-B): 5332.
Investigations of sexual assault have found that a substantial number of women who have been raped according to legal definitions do not conceptualize their experiences as such. As sexual assault prevention programs are not often evaluated, their impact on these unacknowledged victims is unknown. The present study examined the differential effect of one such prevention program on unacknowledged rape victims (n=37) compared to women who acknowledge their experience as rape (n=99) drawn from a larger sample of college men and women. Subjects completed questionnaires about sexual experiences and rape-related attitudes and perceptions before attending either the experimental (prevention program) or the attention control (rape fact presentation) group at the beginning of the academic quarter. Subjects then returned after 7 to 8 weeks to complete the questionnaires. The prevention program does not produce significant effects in subjects' attitudes or perceptions of rape, nor does participation in the program reduce subjects' risk of revictimization over the course of the quarter. Subjects in the experimental group indicate learning and remembering more information than control group subjects. In comparison to unacknowledged victims, acknowledged victims report more perceived applicability and more attention paid to the prevention program, but ratings of amount of information learned are higher for unacknowledged victims. Acknowledged victims' assaults are characterized by more use of threat of force and more offender aggressiveness than those of unacknowledged victims. A greater number of unacknowledged victims did not plan to press charges. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology was at a higher level for acknowledged victims as compared to unacknowledged victims. Twenty-one percent of the subjects report rape experiences over the course of the quarter, with posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology decreasing over the course of the quarter for subjects no
Lenihan, G. O., et al. (1992). "Gender differences in rape supportive attitudes before and after a date rape education intervention." Journal of College Student Development 33(4): 331-338.
Assessed 503 female and 318 male university students' attitudes toward rape and rape mythology and measured any impact on these attitudes following exposure to an acquaintance rape education program. Intervention Ss completed the Rape Supportive Attitudes Survey (M. R. Burt; see record 1981-08163-001) before and/or after exposure to a date rape presentation in health class; no-intervention controls were either pre- and posttested or posttested only. Males adhered more strongly to attitudes associated with the occurrence of date and acquaintance rape than did females. Administration of the preprogram survey of attitudes had a significant sensitizing effect for females, alerting them and triggering a process of change in attitudes. The number of victims and significant others seeking help tripled since introduction of the program.
Lonsway, K. A. and C. Kothari (2000). "First Year Campus Acquaintance Rape Education: Evaluating the impact of a mandatory intervention." Psychology of Women Quarterly 24(3): 220-232.
The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of First Year Campus Acquaintance Rape Education (FYCARE), a mandatory program for first year 17-19 yr old undergraduates. First, questionnaires were administered to 48 FYCARE participants assessed immediately following workshop participation, 76 FYCARE participants sampled through the unrelated context of introductory psychology courses, and 67 students sampled through introductory psychology who had not yet attended their scheduled FYCARE workshop. Second, ostensibly unrelated telephone surveys were conducted with 93 students who participated in FYCARE 4 to 6 months earlier and 77 first year students who had not yet attended their scheduled workshop. Results indicated a positive impact of participants on attitudes and judgements of a hypothetical scenario, but only when assessed immediately following workshop participation. In contrast, increases in knowledge were maintained for a period of up to 7 weeks, and phone survey responses revealed an increase in the level of support for rape prevention efforts 4 to 6 months following program participation. Finally, superior outcomes were observed among students involved in more than one educational program, thus highlighting the need for repeated intervention.
Madden, M. E. (1995). "PERCEIVED VULNERABILITY AND CONTROL OF MARTIAL ARTS AND PHYSICAL-FITNESS STUDENTS." Perceptual and Motor Skills 80(3): 899-910.
Anecdotal reports and limited research suggest that enrolling in self-defense courses can enhance feelings of control and reduce feelings of vulnerability; however, much self-defense is taught in the context of martial arts courses. To assess the effects of martial arts courses on perceptions of vulnerability and control, 83 students in physical fitness and 59 students in martial arts courses at 10 randomly chosen large universities responded to questionnaires. Martial arts students scored lower on control, higher on vulnerability, and higher on perceived likelihood of being injured than fitness students while enrolled in their courses. A year later, regardless of whether they had continued training, they scored higher on control and lower on vulnerability. Neither gender nor prior history of assault was related to responses. Enrolling in martial arts courses may not enhance people's feelings of control, at least in the initial stages of training.
McLeod, P. A. (1997). "The impact of rape education on rape attributions and attitudes: Comparison of a feminist intervention and a miscommunication model intervention." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 58(6-B): 3322.
This study examined the impact of rape education on rape attributions and attitudes. Specifically, the effectiveness of a miscommunication model rape intervention and a feminist model rape intervention on altering victim-blaming rape attributions and attitudes were assessed. The first model, the miscommunication model, suggests that date rape is the result of faulty communication between men and women. The second model, the feminist model, suggests that rape is rooted in a society that devalues women and is a form of male violence and control over women. Participants consisted of 225 female and male college students at the University of South Carolina. Respondents were asked to complete several questionnaires, read a date rape vignette, complete an attributions questionnaire, view a rape education (or control group) videotape, and then return four weeks later to complete the questionnaires again. Sex (female and male) of the subject, time (pretest and posttest), and condition (feminist intervention, miscommunication intervention, and control) were the independent variables. Dependent variables included the Rape Myth Scale and the Attributions Questionnaire. The study found that the feminist intervention was effective in changing victim-blaming attitudes about rape but not in altering victim-blaming attributions about rape, while the miscommunication and control groups provided no such change. These findings suggest that rape education efforts could benefit from a feminist conceptual framework.
Miccio, B. L. S. (1994). "A comparative assessment of the effectiveness of a peer versus a counselor in presenting a date rape prevention intervention program to college students." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 55(2-A): 222.
Milhausen, R. R., et al. (2006). "Evaluating a peer-led, theatrical sexual assault prevention program: How do we measure success?" College Student Journal 40(2): 316-328.
This study investigated the effects of a co-educational, theatrical, peer-facilitated sexual assault prevention program at a large midwestern university. Additionally, the study compared results based on two different measurement tools (the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMAS) and the Sexual Beliefs Scale (SBS)). Methods: Pre-test post-test experimental design was used. Results: Pre- and post- intervention scores were not significantly different on the RMAS, while there were significant differences on three of the five SBS subscales. Participants were less likely to believe women enjoy force and women engage in token refusals to sex after the intervention. However, participants were slightly but significantly less likely to agree "no means stop" post-intervention. Males were more likely than females to endorse rape-supportive values as measured by the RMAS and four of the SBS subscales. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the need for sexual assault prevention programming that accurately reflects the ambiguity of sexual situations while reinforcing that sexual assault is unequivocally wrong.
Mueller, T. M. and Z. D. Peterson (2012). "Affirmative consent and safer, hotter sex." Journal of Sex Research 49(2-3): 303-304.
Reviews the film, Asking For It: The Ethics and Erotics of Sexual Consent directed by Sut Jhally (2010). In this documentary film, an exploration of sexual consent challenges common assumptions about how partners communicate their willingness or unwillingness to engage in sexual activity. The film consists of nothing more than a lecture to a classroom of college students given by Dr. Harry Brod, professor of Philosophy and Humanities at the University of Northern Iowa. The lecture is interactive, inviting comments from the student audience, which provides the viewer with a sense that he or she is an active member of the class. An especially unique and refreshing element of this documentary is Dr. Brod's emphasis on the positive consequences of promoting an affirmative consent standard. Dr. Brod's straightforward tone has an inherent confidence, and his challenges are encouraging without the bitter taste of condemnation. He uses straightforward, yet non-patronizing, language with the audience. Although the film is by no means comprehensive in its examination of sexual consent, it opens opportunities for further discussion among viewers. Areas that are not covered by this video include such issues as how consent operates in different types of sexual relationships, the distinction between felt and expressed consent, and obtaining consent with individuals who have cognitive impairments. This film is recommended for sexual assault prevention education with young adults or as a resource for classes on gender and sexuality. It also could be a useful training video for sexual assault prevention advocates who would like to improve the effectiveness of their message.
Northam, E. J. (1998). "The evaluation of a university-based acquaintance rape prevention program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 58(9-B): 5134.
The 1990's saw the development of acquaintance rape prevention programs in response to increased awareness of it's occurrence and impact on individuals. Prevention programs were developed with the intent of changing the attitudes of sexually aggressive males on the assumption that attitudes such as rape support, adversarial sexual beliefs, and acceptance of rape myths contribute to acquaintance rape. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of one such prevention program. One hundred and eighty male students from a large midwestern university were divided into two groups (dormitory & ROTC) and were administered 3 outcome measures on attitudes across pre, post, and follow-up conditions using a Solomon four group design. In addition, due to the reactiveness to the topic of rape and the high face validity of the outcome measures, a social desirability scale was used to assess for the need for social acceptance. No significant differences were found within the Solomon four group design nor with the measure for social desirability. Data were regrouped into a 2 x 3 (group x administration) design and significant interactions were found for 2 of the 3 outcome measures across post testing and follow-up and pretesting and follow-up conditions for the remaining measure. Significance was also found between the dormitory and ROTC group at the follow-up condition on all measures. Interpretation of significance indicated that respondents' baseline scores were non-supportive of rape and showed decreasing support for rape across testing periods. The goal of evaluating the effectiveness of the prevention program was not reached because of the failure to identify the target population. Results point to the need for more accurate identification of sexually aggressive males prior to presentation of intervention, using evaluation components based on multiple construct theories of attitude and behavior in the assessment of programs, and designing programs based on current theories of persuasion and attitude change. Support is also given for continued use of social desirability measures and follow-up assessment to evaluate long term program impact.
Paul, L. A. and M. J. Gray (2011). "Sexual assault programming on college campuses: Using social psychological belief and behavior change principles to improve outcomes." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 12(2): 99-109.
Sexual assault programming is often delivered without a theoretical framework and does not typically utilize applicable research that could help to induce change among participants. Such interventions may target male and/or female students, although the focus of this review is on men. It is important to examine these programs in light of current theoretical knowledge and empirical findings from the social psychological attitudinal and behavioral change literatures. To this end, current programming efforts and their limitations are briefly reviewed. Three social psychological theories targeting belief and behavior change (i.e., social norms, hypocrisy salience, decision, and deterrence) are discussed and their application to such programming is elaborated. Given this information, recommendations for the research and practice of such interventions are provided.
Phipps, K. A. (2004). "Evaluating an empathy-based model of sexual assault prevention." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 64(7-B): 3539.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an empathy-based model of sexual assault prevention. The literature demonstrated alarming incidence rates of sexual assault on college campuses and the problem does not appear to be dissipating. There has also been little empirical evaluation of integrated theoretical models of sexual assault prevention. This study was designed to evaluate an integrated model whereby empathy was viewed as a mediating factor between prevention programming and attitudinal change, and social conformity was a moderating factor between attitude and sexually aggressive behaviors. Another purpose of this study was to replicate a previous prevention program evaluation (Foubert, 2000). This study used the Men's Program, a 1-hour male peer-presented prevention program designed to educate men regarding sexual assault using a video depiction of a sexual assault, lecture, and discussion of factors relating to sexual assault. This study was designed to evaluate the program's impact on rape myth acceptance, general and victim empathy, self-reported likelihood of raping, social conformity, and self-reported sexually aggressive behavior. Participants included 163 fraternity members on a midwestern university campus. Results demonstrated that the Men's Program decreased rape myth acceptance and social conformity, and increased empathy for victims; however those changes were not maintained at 7-month followup. Due to the lack of differences at followup the empathy-based model was not fully evaluated. The present findings did not fully replicate the findings of Foubert's study, which may have been due to modifications made to Foubert's study. Those modifications included changes to the program, experimental design, measurement of outcome variables, and statistical design. The implications of these modifications to the replication were discussed, but conclusions were limited. The findings of the study also need to be viewed with caution due to several limitations of the study. The limitations included design problems resulting in decreased power and omission of an immediate posttest, in addition to the presence of measurement effects. Due to the limitations, conclusions regarding the efficacy of the Men's Program were restricted. Suggestions for future research were offered including the continued assessment of prevention program efficacy and identification of constructs related to sexual assault.
Pinzone, H. A. (1995). "Acquaintance rape awareness program: Effects on attitudes and perceptions." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 55(7-B): 3022.
The present study investigates the effects of an acquaintance rape awareness program on college students' attitudes and perceptions. The current study is unique in that it combines pre- and post-testing of standardized measures of attitudes with an awareness program specific to acquaintance rape and an adequate control group receiving information about sexually transmitted diseases. More than one scenario is employed to evaluate the subjects' ability to accurately define the occurrence of rape across a range of situations. Subjects were led to believe they were participating in two separate experiments in order to decrease demand characteristics. During the pre- and post-tests, subjects rated three scenarios and completed questionnaires. For the education phase, subjects were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. Results indicate that the acquaintance rape awareness program affects college students' attitudes and perceptions. The treatment group is more empathic toward the victim than is the control group. Furthermore, treatment group males are more egalitarian in their attitudes toward women than are control group males. Within the treatment group, males change more in their attitudes toward women post-intervention than do females. However, given that females score higher than males on the AWS in this study, females have less room for change. More importantly, males change their attitudes in a positive manner after receiving the treatment intervention. Not only are attitudes changed in a positive manner, but treatment group subjects are more certain of their definitions of rape situations post-education. An important finding is that treatment group males are better able to define a situation as rape post-intervention than are control group males. Furthermore, as scenario subtlety increases, males are less able to accurately define a rape situation than are females. Therefore, females are generally more certain of their definitions than are males
Pinzone-Glover, H. A., et al. (1998). "An acquaintance rape prevention program: Effects on attitudes toward women, rape-related attitudes, and perceptions of rape scenarios." Psychology of Women Quarterly 22(4): 605-621.
Investigated the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance-rape scenarios, and rape empathy. 152 Ss were led to believe that they were participating in 2 separate experiments in order to decrease demand characteristics. Results indicate that intervention group men and women became more empathic toward the victim than the control group, postintervention. Within the intervention group, men changed more in their attitudes toward women postintervention than did women. In addition to positive attitude change, results with the date-rape scenarios suggested that intervention-group men became more certain of their definitions of rape situations postintervention. Prior to the intervention, women were generally more certain of their definitions than were men, with intervention-group men approximating women's responses postintervention.
Pitman, L. J. (2000). "Interpersonal violence among college students: Evaluation of a brief education and prevention program." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 61(3-B): 1649.
Scant literature has evaluated the effectiveness of interpersonal violence education and prevention programs. Although many colleges offer some form of prevention programming, most commonly, this programming has been directed specifically toward the prevention of sexual assault and thus has ignored the full range of potential assault experiences. Using a pre-test, post-test, quasi-experimental design, this study addressed three primary issues involved in the prevention of interpersonal violence among a sample of college-aged sorority members (N = 139). Participants' histories of interpersonal violence, drinking behavior, knowledge about interpersonal violence, experiences of potentially harmful behaviors, previous use of potential preventive measures, and five constructs contained in Rogers (1975, 1983) Protection Motivation Theory were assessed. Four research questions were addressed. Question I asked if participants' histories of interpersonal violence and frequency of alcohol consumption would differentially affect their pre-program responses to the dependent measures. Participants' distributions of blame for interpersonal violence and their experiences of potentially harmful behaviors varied based on their histories of interpersonal violence. Participants' experiences of substance-related consequences varied based on the frequency of their drinking behavior. Question 2 asked if the violence education and prevention program was effective. Significant pre- to post-test gains were found in participants' funds of interpersonal violence knowledge and behavioral intentions. Question 3 asked if participants' histories of interpersonal violence and frequency of alcohol consumption would differentially affect their evaluations of components of Rogers' (1975, 1983) Protection Motivation Theory. Participants' self-efficacy to perform the recommended preventive measures varied based on their histories of interpersonal violence. Significant differences were also found in participants' judgements of the severity of consequences to victims, their likelihood of being affected by interpersonal violence, and their self-efficacy to perform the preventive measures based on the frequency of their drinking behavior. Question 4 asked if there was support for the use of Rogers' (1975, 1983) Protection Motivation Theory. Results of a standard multiple regression analysis indicated that participants' ratings of the efficacy of and their self-efficacy to perform the preventive measures significantly contributed to the prediction of their behavioral intentions.
Purdie, M. P., et al. (2010). "Perpetrators of intimate partner sexual violence: Are there unique characteristics associated with making partners have sex without a condom?" Violence Against Women 16(10): 1086-1097.
This study examined correlates of making an intimate partner engage in unprotected sex among perpetrators of sexual violence. Based on the Confluence Model, we hypothesized that power and impersonal sex motives would be higher among perpetrators who made a dating partner have unprotected sex. Among a subsample of 78 male college students, significant differences were found for acceptance of verbal pressure, positive attitudes about casual sex, frequency of sexual intercourse, and physical injuries to dating partners. These findings highlight the importance of integrating theories and interventions directed at sexual assault and sexual risk reduction.
Rothman, E. and J. Silverman (2007). "The effect of a college sexual assault prevention program on first-year students' victimization rates." Journal of American College Health 55(5): 283-290.
Objective: Although a variety of sexual assault prevention programs are currently available to college health professionals, there is a dearth of information about the effect of these programs on sexual assault victimization rates. Participants: The authors evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault prevention program for first-year students at a college in the Northeast (N = 1,982). Methods: They used a retrospective cohort design and assessed the prevalence of sexual assault victimization among students exposed to the sexual assault prevention program and students 1 year their senior who were not exposed. Results: Students who had no exposure were more likely to report that they were sexually assaulted during their first year of college (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [1.32-2.29]). Results suggest that the program was effective for males and females, but not for students with a prior history of sexual assault victimization. Gay, lesbian, and bisexual students were at increased risk for victimization as compared with heterosexual students, and students who drank alcohol or engaged in binge drinking were at increased risk as compared with alcohol abstinent students. Conclusions: Findings suggest that this program had a positive effect on victimization rates for certain sub-groups of students.
Saberi, D. (2000). "Acquaintance rape prevention: Changing rape-supportive attitudes of college students." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 60(11-B): 5759.
The purpose of this study was to examine rape education and prevention efforts which address rape-supportive attitudes and victim empathy. Interventions were directed at eliciting empathy at three different levels through an exposure to a dramatic performance portraying acquaintance rape and victim reactions, a video presentation of the drama, and a didactic presentation addressing the same issues. Participants were students enrolled in 16 sections of a university survival course in a large southwest university. Classes were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, which consisted of the three treatments and a placebo/ control condition. It was hypothesized that treatment groups will show lower rape myth acceptance scores as measured by the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (RMA) and higher rape empathy scores as measured by the Rape Empathy Scale (RES) than the placebo. Participants' attitudes toward women, measured by the Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS), was examined as a covariate which influences acceptance of rape myths and victim empathy. It was also hypothesized that participants in the higher empathy induction conditions, namely the drama and the video, will show lower rape myth acceptance and higher rape empathy scores than participants in the didactic presentation. In addition, participants with a less traditional view of women's roles, as measured by the AWS scale, were expected to have lower acceptance of rape myths and higher rape empathy scores as compared to participants with a more traditional view of women. Finally, women were hypothesized to have lower rape myth acceptance and higher victim empathy scores than men. Results indicated significant main effect differences between the treatment groups; however, there was no significant difference between the combined rape ducation groups and the placebo. Contrary to the hypothesis proposing that the most effective treatments will be the drama and video, the group which received the didactic presentation held the lowest rape myth acceptance and highest rape empathy scores. The difference was statistically significant for RMA, but not for RES. Participants in the didactic presentation condition also showed statistically significant lower RMA and higher RES scores when compared to participants in the placebo condition. As hypothesized, an inverse correlation between the covariate and the outcome measures was discovered. Participants who held a traditional view of women showed higher rape myth acceptance and lower rape empathy scores than participants who were more liberal in their attitudes toward women. Finally, as hypothesized, women held lower rape myth acceptance and higher rape empathy scores than men. Results are discussed in a way which will help direct future rape education and prevention efforts
Senn, C. Y., et al. (2011). "Emancipatory sexuality education and sexual assault resistance: Does the former enhance the latter?" Psychology of Women Quarterly 35(1): 72-91.
The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design evaluated the effectiveness of a basic and sexuality enhanced version of a sexual assault resistance program against a no-program control. Both programs, compared to the control group, increased women's perception of their own risk, their confidence that they could defend themselves if attacked, and their use of more effective methods of self-defense in hypothetical situations of acquaintance sexual assault. Effects were maintained from 3 to 6 months after program completion. No significant reductions in completed sexual assault were found. The sexuality enhanced program was superior in several areas, particularly risk detection and initiation of sexual activity, which may be important to women's integration of the program's content to their lives. Future research will need to strengthen and continue to evaluate the promising programs for women which now exist. Until effective programming for men on campus is developed and implemented widely, our best hope to improve the health and safety of female students lays in comprehensive women-only multi-unit sexual assault resistance education.
Sussenbach, P., et al. (2013). "Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions." J Interpers Violence 28(11): 2250-2272.
The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.
Talbot, K. K., et al. (2010). "Rape-accepting attitudes of university undergraduate students." Journal of Forensic Nursing 6(4): 170-179.
The College Date Rape Attitudes Survey and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were used in a cross-sectional study to assess rape-accepting attitudes of a convenience sample of 1602 university undergraduate students using a survey distributed online. The findings evidenced that males and individuals with more traditional gender role beliefs had attitudes more accepting of rape than the females and individuals who had more egalitarian gender role beliefs. Respondents who personally knew a rape survivor had attitudes less accepting of rape than those respondents who did not know a survivor. These findings support a continuing need to address rape myths in sexual violence prevention programming. The sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE-A) has an important role in prevention services to educate and build awareness of rape myths both on campus and through community-based efforts to reach this high risk population. Further, the SANE can build important linkages between the college campus and the healthcare setting to support the provision of effective intervention services and improved outcomes in victims of sexual violence.
Tharp, A. T., et al. (2011). "Commentary on Foubert, Godin, & Tatum (2010): The Evolution of Sexual Violence Prevention and the Urgency for Effectiveness." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(16): 3383-3392.
Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and evaluation of sexual violence prevention approaches. In this commentary, we will focus on two considerations for an evolving field: the adherence to the principles of prevention and the use of rigorous evaluation methods to demonstrate effectiveness. We argue that the problem of sexual violence has created urgency for effective prevention programs and that scientific and prevention standards provide the best foundation to meet this need.
Vladutiu, C. J., et al. (2011). "College- or university-based sexual assault prevention programs: A review of program outcomes, characteristics, and recommendations." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 12(2): 67-86.
This article examines literature reviews of research articles and dissertations focused on the effectiveness of college-or university-based sexual violence prevention programs. Literature reviews were eligible for inclusion in this article if they examined empirical published peer-reviewed research articles or dissertation research that reported original data; focused on examining the effectiveness of programs that were developed to reduce sexual violence that occurred in college or university settings; offered recommendations for developing and implementing effective college- or university-based sexual assault prevention programs; and reviewed studies that occurred in the United States. Eight review articles met the inclusion criteria. The results suggest that the effectiveness of college- or university-based sexual violence prevention programs varies depending on the type of audience, facilitator, format, and program content. Recommendations from existing reviews of empirical research concerning these program characteristics should be considered by college or university administrators when designing and implementing their own programs on campus.
Wyandt, M. A. (2004). "A comparison of peer education and lecture strategies for changing college freshmen's perceptions about rape." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 64(7-A): 2398.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of peer education compared to lecture on dispelling rape myths, increasing knowledge, and changing rape-supportive attitudes to rape-intolerant attitudes among college freshmen. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action as a theoretical framework, the Rape Attitude and Subjective Norm Scale was developed and administered with existing rape myth belief assessments as a pretest, posttest (intervention groups only), and 4-5 week follow-up test to 19 freshmen classes randomly assigned to receive peer education (n = 47), a lecture (n = 56), or no intervention (n = 37). A rape knowledge scale was also created. Although significant time effects in the direction of desired attitudes and beliefs were found for rape myth acceptance, rape attitudes, and subjective norm, after receiving an intervention, no significant difference was found between peer education and lecture. The intervention groups were less accepting of rape myths about 5 weeks after treatment than the control group. Lecture resulted in significantly higher rape knowledge scores than peer education, but both intervention groups had significantly higher rape knowledge scores about 5 weeks following treatment compared to the control group. The study determined that peer education is as effective as lecture for changing attitudes and rape myth acceptance, even if knowledge levels increased more for the lecture group, suggesting that knowledge alone does not necessarily lead to attitude change. Overall, the study provided a foundation to build from for future research and a new instrument for measuring attitudes and subjective norm with regards to rape issues.
Yom, Y. H. and L. K. Eun (2005). "Effects of a CD-ROM educational program on sexual knowledge and attitude." Comput Inform Nurs 23(4): 214-219.
This study evaluated a CD-ROM educational program in sexual violence prevention for middle school students. A randomized control-group pretest-posttest design was used. Seventy-nine students were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n = 39) or control (n = 40) group. The experimental group watched the CD-ROM, whereas the control group did not. Both groups were pretested for the levels of knowledge and attitude about sexual violence prevention prior to intervention. A CD-ROM titled Educational Program for the Prevention of Sexual Violence was used for the intervention. The instrument contains 32 true-false items that measure knowledge level and 20 items comprising a four-point Likert-type scale that measure the attitude to sexual violence. There was a significant increase in knowledge in the experimental group, while no differences on attitude were found between the experimental and control groups. A CD-ROM-based program can be effective for delivering instructions on sexual violence prevention in the classroom.
Prevention – fraternity
Choate, L. H. (2003). "Sexual Assault Prevention Programs for College Men: An Exploratory Evaluation of the Men Against Violence Model." Journal of College Counseling 6(2): 166-176.
This article describes an exploratory evaluation of a rape prevention program targeted toward fraternity members. The program is based on the Men Against Violence (L. Hong, 2000a) model, which emphasizes the association between male role socialization and sexual aggression. Implications for college counselors who conduct rape prevention programs are provided.
Davis, T. L. (1997). "The effectiveness of a sex role socialization-focused date rape prevention program in reducing rape-supportive attitudes in college fraternity men." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 58(5-A): 1599.
Most efforts to address the widespread problem of date rape on college campuses have focused on providing direct remedial services for survivors. While these efforts are critical, preventive and developmental interventions need to also be aimed at the potential perpetrators of date rape. The central purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a socialization-focused rape prevention program designed specifically for college fraternity men. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatments or a control group. In addition to attitude-oriented outcome measures, this investigation used knowledge and behavior-related assessments. A follow-up assessment was included to evaluate whether attitude or knowledge gains rebounded six weeks after the intervention. Measures were employed, furthermore, to control for presenter bias and social desirability. To assess intervention effectiveness this study used two independent variables (gender role conflict and treatment), four dependent measures (rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward women, comprehension of consent, behavior-indicator questions), and three testing periods (pretest, posttest, six-week follow-up). Comparisons were made using focus contrast analyses. A major finding of this study was that a socialization-focused treatment was as effective as another rape prevention program in reducing rape-supportive attitudes and increasing understanding of the difference between consent and coercion. Attitudes and knowledge, however rebounded to pretest-like levels six weeks following intervention. In addition, men with low gender role conflict, who are hypothetically at lower-risk for perpetration of sexual assault, showed greater comprehension of consent at posttest and more liberal attitudes toward women's roles at follow-up. Finally, restricted affectionate behavior was found to be related to rape supportive-attitudes and knowledge. Implications of these findings were examined and recommendations for designing future studies and rape prevention programs for men were suggested.
Davis, T. L. and D. L. Liddell (2002). "Getting inside the house: The effectiveness of a rape prevention program for college fraternity men." Journal of College Student Development 43(1): 35-50.
To investigate the effectiveness of a socialization-focused rape prevention program designed specifically for college fraternity men, 90 greek male participants (18-23 yrs old; 95.6% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 2 treatment groups and 1 control group. Results suggest that a socialization approach to rape education was as effective as a more traditional prevention program with regard to attitudes and knowledge. Participants in the rape prevention programs, for example, held fewer rape myths and had a clearer understanding of consent than the control group. Although attitudes rebounded to previous levels at the 6-week follow-up, a relationship between gender-role conflict and rape myth acceptance was discovered.
Echols, K. L. (1998). "Dating relationships and sexual victimization: An intervention program with college freshman males." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 59(4-A): 1076.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a prevention education program designed to increase male college students' awareness of sexual coercion and victimization, reflecting a dimensional rather than a dichotomous view of sexual assault. The subjects for this study were 140 freshman males. The experimental group (n = 76) was comprised of freshman fraternity pledges. The control group (n = 64) was comprised of freshman males living in all-male dormitories. The Dating Attitudes and Touching Expectations SCALE (DATES), developed and validated by the researcher, was used in a pretest-posttest-retest design to determine changes in participants' perceptions of sexual coercion and victimization. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare pre-test to re-test differences between the experimental and control groups. Results indicated that the two groups differed at the outset, with the experimental group exhibiting significantly higher scores than the control group at the pretest; this difference was maintained at the retest. Repeated measures analysis of variance was also used to compare the experimental group across pretest, posttest, and retest scores. A follow-up 1-sample t test revealed that significant differences (p < .001) existed for the experimental group from pretest to posttest scores. No significant differences (p > .05) were found to exist between the posttest and the 1-month retest. Results supported that a brief intervention can be effective in changing participants' perceptions of sexual victimization and that these changes can be maintained for at least 1-month. Differences between the experimental and control groups limit generalizability to other populations. Further studies should be fashioned to both replicate the current investigation and to extend beyond the scope of its current limitations.
Foubert, J. D. (2000). "The longitudinal effects of a rape-prevention program on fraternity men's attitudes, behavioral intent, and behavior." Journal of American College Health 48(4): 158-163.
Rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and sexually coercive behavior of 145 fraternity men (mean age 20.33 yrs) randomly assigned to a control group or a rape-prevention program were surveyed. One third of 23 fraternities on a mid-Atlantic public university campus volunteered to participate in the study. The rape-prevention intervention consisted of "the men's program," a victim empathy-based presentation titled "How to help a sexual assault survivor: What men can do." Measures included the Burt Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and the Sexual Experiences Survey. Although no evidence of change in sexually coercive behavior was found, significant 7-mo declines in rape myth acceptance and the likelihood of committing rape were shown among program participants. In the case of rape myth acceptance, the 7-mo decrement remained lower in the participant group than in the control group. Implications of using these initial findings from the men's program for rape-prevention programming are discussed.
Foubert, J. D., et al. (2011). "Pornography viewing among fraternity men: Effects on bystander intervention, rape myth acceptance and behavioral intent to commit sexual assault." Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity 18(4): 212-231.
College men's exposure to pornography is nearly universal, with growing viewing rates nationwide. Substantial research documents the harmful effects of mainstream, sadomasochistic, and rape pornography on men's attitudes and behavior related to sexual assault. The present study surveyed 62% of the fraternity population at a Midwestern public university on their pornography viewing habits, bystander efficacy, and bystander willingness to help in potential rape situations. Results showed that men who view pornography are significantly less likely to intervene as a bystander, report an increased behavioral intent to rape, and are more likely to believe rape myths.
Foubert, J. D. and M. K. McEwen (1998). "An all-male rape prevention peer education program: Decreasing fraternity men's behavioral intent to rape." Journal of College Student Development 39(6): 548-556.
This study evaluated an all-male rape prevention peer education program, intended to decrease fraternity men's behavioral intent to rape. Participants were 155 fraternity men (88% White, mean age of 19.9 yrs, mostly sophomores and juniors) who were in either a pretested and posttested rape prevention program group, a posttested rape prevention program group, or an untreated control group. Belief in rape myths was assessed by the Burt Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, central route processing was evaluated using a state measure, and intent to rape was evaluated according to B. A. Malamuth's (1981) study questions. Significant post-program declines in rape myth acceptance and behavioral intent to rape were shown among participants regardless of whether they were pretested, supporting the hypothesis that rape prevention programming is most effective in an all-male peer education format.
Foubert, J. D. and J. T. Newberry (2006). "Effects of Two Versions of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program on Fraternity Men's Survivor Empathy, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intent to Commit Rape or Sexual Assault." Journal of College Student Development 47(2): 133-148.
Fraternity men (N = 261) at a small to midsized public university saw one of two versions of a rape prevention program or were in a control group. Program participants reported significant increases in empathy toward rape survivors and significant declines in rape myth acceptance, likelihood of raping, and likelihood of committing sexual assault. Program participants' scores significantly differed from an untreated control group in several areas. Implications for describing a male-on-male rape to increase men's empathy toward female survivors and other related attitudes are discussed.
Pinkerton, N. B. (2012). "Men in violence prevention: Evaluating a sexual assault prevention program targeting college fraternity men." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 73(4-B): 2515.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a sexual assault prevention program targeting college fraternity men. Specifically, this study sought to examine consumer satisfaction feedback for the "Men in Violence Prevention" (MIVP) program and to determine if significant differences were observed between participants' scores on various measures assessing rape-supportive attitudes, victim empathy, and acceptance of rape myths before (pre-test) and after (post-test) attending the MIVP program. Responses from the Elaboration Likelihood Model Questionnaire-Likert (ELMQ-L) portion of the consumer satisfaction questionnaire were quite favorable overall (84%), suggesting that participants were actively engaged in the program and found it to be valuable, informational, and personally relevant. Analysis of the open-ended consumer satisfaction responses revealed that the primary strengths identified for this program included the speakers, media, and applicable, understandable, and meaningful information provided. The primary criticisms were that the program was too long and the atmosphere of the program was sexist in that men were unfairly blamed for the majority of problems related to sexual assault and rape. Results showed significant differences between pre-test scores and post-test scores for the Reaction to Offensive Language and Behavior (ROLB) subscales, indicating that after attending the program, participants endorsed less comfort with sexist language and behavior and more willingness to intervene in situations where sexist language and behavior were observed. No significant differences were observed between pre-test and post-test scores on measures assessing rape empathy or rape myth acceptance. Post-hoc analysis revealed that at post-test only, older students reported more willingness to intervene in situations where sexist language and behavior are observed than younger students and participants perceived their peers as having more rape supportive attitudes than themselves. No significant differences were observed on any measure at any time point based on the participants' ethnicity, previous attendance at a sexual assault program, or endorsement of knowing a victim. Due to a number of limitations in this study, it is recommended that the findings be viewed with caution. A discussion of these findings, their limitations, and suggestions for future research were presented.
Wantland, R. A. (2008). "Our brotherhood and your sister: building anti-rape community in the fraternity." J Prev Interv Community 36(1-2): 57-73.
Research shows that male peer influence is a significant predictor of violent sexual behavior. However, men challenging sexual violence within their male peer communities may exert a counter-influence, shifting community norms and behaviors. Using the Fraternity Peer Rape Education Program as a case study, this article examines the ways that fraternity men in a peer rape education program make sense of and interact within their communities. Through coded interviews, this article examines participants' perceptions of change within themselves, within their interactions with fraternity brothers, and within their fraternities. Learning about sexual violence altered participants' worldview and created a communal sense of partnership and responsibility, while simultaneously limiting the traditional ways that fraternal communities are maintained. This experience provides lessons for how we may begin creating communities of men against sexual violence, as well as what support may be required for such messy, nonlinear change processes.
Foubert, J. D. and B. C. Perry (2007). "Creating Lasting Attitude and Behavior Change in Fraternity Members and Male Student Athletes: The Qualitative Impact of an Empathy-Based Rape Prevention Program." Violence Against Women 13(1): 70-86.
Fraternity members and male student athletes responded to open-ended questions assessing the impact of an empathy-based rape prevention program. All participants reported either lasting attitude or behavior changes; most reported both. Participants reported increased understanding of how rape might feel and attributed this change to seeing a videotape describing a male-on-male rape situation. Participants refrained from telling jokes about rape and reported feeling more effective when helping survivors seeking assistance. These behavior changes were attributed to the videotape and to a section of the program encouraging participants to confront rape jokes and challenge sexist behaviors.
Koss, M. P. and H. H. Cleveland, 3rd (1996). "Athletic participation, fraternity membership, and date rape. The question remains -- self-selection or different causal processes?" Violence Against Women 2(2): 180-190.
Moynihan, M. M. and V. L. Banyard (2008). "Community responsibility for preventing sexual violence: a pilot study with campus Greeks and intercollegiate athletes." J Prev Interv Community 36(1-2): 23-38.
Previous research has noted higher incidences of sexual violence on campus among members of campus Greeks and athletes and the need to do prevention programs with them. This article presents the results of an exploratory pilot study of a sexual violence prevention program with members of one fraternity, sorority, men's and women's intercollegiate athletic team. The program, experimentally evaluated and found to be effective with a general sample of undergraduates, was used to determine its efficacy specifically with Greeks and athletes. The model on which the program is based calls for prevention efforts that take a wider community approach rather than simply targeting individuals as potential perpetrators or victims. Results from repeated-measures analysis of variance indicate that the program worked overall. Future directions are discussed.
Lenihan, G. O. and M. E. Rawlins (1994). "Rape supportive attitudes among Greek students before and after a date rape prevention program." Journal of College Student Development 35(6): 450-455.
Assessed rape supportive attitudes of sorority and fraternity members and evaluated a mandatory date rape education program in comparison with a non-Greek organization group studied earlier. 636 male and female Greek organization students participated; 821 non-Greek organization students served as controls. Greek organization Ss completed the Rape Supportive Attitudes Survey (RSAS) before and after the program; control Ss had taken the RSAS 2 yrs earlier without any education program. Greek organization students registered more desirable scores than non-Greeks on the RSAS, but the education program did not improve their score.
Nurius, P. S., et al. (1996). "Expectations regarding acquaintance sexual aggression among sorority and fraternity members." Sex Roles 35(7-8): 427-444.
Among women, college is a high risk period for sexual assault by male acquaintances. Differences in expectations held by men and women may contribute to misinterpretation of social cites and subsequent sexual aggression and may impair women's ability to respond effectively. This paper presents findings from a predominantly Caucasian sample (85.9%) of college sorority (n = 66) and fraternity (n = 34) members regarding the social context within which they interact and their expectations regarding perpetration of and response to sexual aggression. Results showed differences in men's and women's expectations and responses, and in particular highlighted how men's expectations were related to women's resistance of unwanted sex. Understanding the cognitive processes that men and women draw upon in social interactions can be useful for developing sexual aggression prevention and resistance interventions.
Prevention – public health campaign
Hust, S. J., et al. (2013). "Health promotion messages in entertainment media: Crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation." Journal of Health Communication 18(1): 105-123.
Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault.
Koelsch, L. E., et al. (2012). "Bystander perceptions: Implications of university sexual assault prevention programs." Violence and Victims 27(4): 563-579.
The college party environment comprises a risk factor for unwanted sexual activity but may also provide a safety net, given the presence of bystanders who can potentially intervene in risky situations. Sexual assault prevention programs are increasingly incorporating bystander education into their designs. This article presents findings intended to inform these programs. Qualitative data from single-sex focus groups about typical college party behavior was analyzed for common themes. Analysis of these themes suggests that although some sexual behavior is visible at college parties, most sexual behavior is assumed to occur behind closed doors. In addition, intervention and prevention methods may vary by gender. Multiple factors appear to promote or dissuade bystander intervention in college party situations.
Lee, R. W., et al. (2003). "Addressing Sexual Assault on College Campuses: Guidelines for a Prevention/Awareness Week." Journal of College Counseling 6(1): 14-24.
The authors discuss concepts that are related to providing education and training regarding sexual assault, as outlined by the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1990, as amended in 1992. Because college counseling center staff members often initiate and plan campus outreach prevention programs, an outline is provided of a prevention/awareness week intervention that is designed to address sexual assault on university and college campuses.
Payne, B. K. and R. Fogerty (2007). "Narratives about violence: The words of college students." The Social Science Journal 44(2): 367-373.
The Clothesline Project was created in 1990 to give women a creative outlet for describing their experiences with violence. Survivors of violence print messages on t-shirts which are displayed for the public during different events such as Victims' Rights Week and Sexual Assault Awareness Week. Approximately 300 different projects are held each year in various locations across the world. In the current study,we examined the kinds of messages printed on the t-shirts by 48 participants in a Clothesline Project held on a college campus. The following five themes were uncovered: (1) messages to survivors, (2) messages to potential offenders, (3) love themes, (4) prevention themes, and (5) awareness-based themes. Implications are provided.
Potter, S. J. (2012). "Using a Multimedia Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Active Bystanders on the College Campus." Journal of American College Health 60(4): 282-295.
Objective: To evaluate the campus-wide administration of the Know Your Power bystander-oriented social marketing campaign. Participants: Undergraduate students at a public college were invited to participate in a public awareness survey before and after the 6-week campaign administration in February and March 2009. Methods: Pretest and posttests were administered (N = 353) to examine if exposure to the campaign changed students' stage of scale scores. Results: Exposure to the social marketing campaign increased participants' awareness of their role in reducing sexual and relationship violence and stalking, increased their expressed willingness to get involved in reducing the incidence these types of violence, and resulted in participants being more likely to report having taken action to reduce these types of violence. Conclusions: As college students explore their role as community members, it is an opportunity for college educators to design and administer prevention messages highlighting behavioral norms to be explored and adopted.
Potter, S. J., et al. (2011). "Using Social Self-Identification in Social Marketing Materials Aimed at Reducing Violence Against Women on Campus." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(5): 971-990.
Bystander-focused in person sexual violence prevention programs provide an opportunity for skill development among bystanders and for widening the safety net for survivors. A social marketing campaign was designed modeling prosocial bystander behavior and using content familiar to target audience members by staging and casting scenes to look similar to the people and situations that the target audience regularly encounters. We refer to this sense of familiarity as social self-identification. In this exploratory study, we attempt to understand how seeing oneself and one's peer group (e.g., social self-identification) in poster images affects target audience members' (e.g., college students) willingness to intervene as a prosocial bystander. The posters in the social marketing campaign were displayed throughout a midsize northeastern public university campus and neighboring local businesses frequented by students. During the last week of the 4-week poster display, the university's homepage portal featured an advertisement displaying a current model of an iPod offering undergraduate students an opportunity to win the device if they completed a community survey. We found that among students who had seen the posters, those who indicated that the scenes portrayed in the posters looked like situations that were familiar to them were significantly more likely to contemplate taking action in preventing a situation where sexual violence had the potential to occur. Furthermore, students who indicated familiarity with the poster content were more likely to indicate that they had acted in a manner similar to those portrayed in the poster. Future directions based on findings from this exploratory study are discussed.
Potter, S. J., et al. (2009). "Empowering Bystanders to Prevent Campus Violence Against Women A Preliminary Evaluation of a Poster Campaign." Violence Against Women 15(1): 106-121.
Researchers at a midsized public northeastern university evaluated the efficacy of a poster campaign to determine if students increase their knowledge of prosocial bystander behaviors and willingness to intervene in instances of sexual violence after viewing a series of campaign posters where student actors model appropriate bystander behaviors. During the last week of the campaign, undergraduates were invited to participate in a Web survey. The results of this preliminary evaluation indicate promising variation in the awareness of students who reported seeing the campaign compared to those who did not.
Potter, S. J. and J. G. Stapleton (2011). "Bringing in the target audience in bystander social marketing materials for communities: suggestions for practitioners." Violence Against Women 17(6): 797-812.
The Know Your Power social marketing campaign images model active bystander behaviors that target audience members can use in situations where sexual and relationship violence and stalking are occurring, have occurred, or have the potential to occur. In this practitioner note, we describe strategies that we have used to engage target audience members in the development of the social marketing campaign that we hope can be used by practitioners. We give examples from the development and evaluation of the Know Your Power(TM) social marketing campaign that used focus group and other types of feedback from the target audience to inform the direction of the campaign.
Potter, S. J., et al. (2008). "Designing, implementing, and evaluating a media campaign illustrating the bystander role." J Prev Interv Community 36(1-2): 39-55.
Recent research found that training men and women to understand the role of bystanders in situations where violence against women (VAW) is occurring may reduce the incidence of VAW (Moynihan & Banyard, 2004). Therefore a public awareness campaign to increase understanding of the prosocial role of bystanders in reducing VAW was developed and implemented. The current article discusses the role of media campaigns in addressing public health issues and describes the initial development, implementation, and evaluation of a media campaign focused on the bystander role in reducing the incidence of VAW. Conclusions and future directions of this exploratory project are discussed.
Stanley, N., et al. (2012). "Men's talk: men's understandings of violence against women and motivations for change." Violence Against Women 18(11): 1300-1318.
This article reports research undertaken to inform a social marketing campaign targeting men's violence toward women in a city in northern England. Eighty-four men drawn from community groups participated in 15 focus groups. Participants struggled with wider definitions of domestic abuse and resisted depictions of men as wholly responsible for domestic violence. The potential loss of the relationship with children and, to a lesser degree, the relationship with their partner were identified as powerful incentives for changing abusive behavior. Men were particularly affected by the prospect of damage to their own self-image that children's perceptions of their fathers' violence conveyed.
Prevention – individuals with prior history of childhood sexual abuse
Hill, J. M., et al. (2011). "The development of a brief acceptance and mindfulness-based program aimed at reducing sexual revictimization among college women with a history of childhood sexual abuse." J Clin Psychol 67(9): 969-980.
Women with a history of childhood sexual assault (CSA) are more likely to be revictimized; however, most existing programs aimed at reducing sexual victimization do not expressly address the issue of revictimization. The present study examined the efficacy of a brief mindfulness-based program in reducing rates of sexual assault and revictimization in college women over the course of an academic semester. Although the results were not statistically significant, a large-magnitude effect was noted, whereby women with a history of CSA who participated in the program were less likely to be sexually assaulted and raped at 2-month follow-up.
Messman-Moore, T. L., et al. (2000). "The revictimization of child sexual abuse survivors: an examination of the adjustment of college women with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and adult physical abuse." Child Maltreat 5(1): 18-27.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with greater vulnerability to victimization in adulthood. Such experiences may have a cumulative effect. This study compared the adjustment of 633 women experiencing revictimization, multiple adult victimizations, single adult victimization, CSA only, or no victimization. Somatization, depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology were examined. Results support the cumulative effect of trauma but do not indicate differential effects for child to adult revictimization. Women with revictimization and multiple adult assaults reported more difficulties compared to women with only one form of adult abuse or no victimization. Women with CSA only reported similar symptoms as revictimized women and women with multiple adult assaults reported higher levels of distress than nonabused women and appeared somewhat more likely to experience anxiety and PTSD-related symptoms as compared to women with only adult abuse. Women with adult assault only and no abuse reported similar levels of distress.
Rich, C. L., et al. (2005). "Child and adolescent abuse and subsequent victimization: A prospective study." Child Abuse & Neglect 29(12): 1373-1394.
Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal functioning were assessed in 551 college women. Subsequent victimization experiences and psychological outcomes were assessed at the follow-up (Time 2). Results: Path analyses indicated that verbal abuse by the mother and father were predictive of various psychological outcomes as measured at Time 1 and emerged as the only significant predictors of adolescent dating violence. Adolescent dating violence subsequently predicted the experience of dating violence during the 2-month follow-up period. Paternal physical abuse predicted adolescent sexual victimization which subsequently predicted all symptom measures at Time 1. Conversely, the experience of adolescent physical dating violence was not predictive of any of the symptom measures at Time 1. For those women who experienced dating violence during the follow-up, however, the severity of their abusive experiences was related to both depression and interpersonal problems assessed at Time 2. In comparison, for those women who experienced sexual victimization during the follow-up period, the severity of their abusive experiences was related to trauma symptoms. Interpersonal problems emerged as both an aftereffect of adolescent sexual victimization experience and a predictor of a subsequent sexual victimization experience during the follow-up. Conclusions: Given that emotional abuse emerged as a predictor of adolescent dating violence and psychological outcomes, researchers and clinicians need to continue to explore this problem. Further, it is important to assess how interpersonal problems contribute to the risk of subsequent sexual victimization and to try to break the cycle between adolescent abuse experiences and subsequent physical and sexual assaults. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevention – Self-Defense
Cummings, N. (1992). "Self-defense training for college women." Journal of American College Health 40(4): 183-188.
Explores the effectiveness of self-defense (SD) training for college women and describes a model SD course at Cornell University. Advocates of SD training believe these courses will provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks and help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that SD training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. Practical suggestions for initiatives in SD training are included.
Gidycz, C. A., et al. (2006). "The Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Self-Defense and Risk-Reduction Program for College Women: A Prospective Study." Psychology of Women Quarterly 30(2): 173-186.
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program that included a physical self-defense component for college women (N=500). Program group women significantly increased their protective behaviors over the 6-month follow-up period compared to the waiting-list control group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding rates of sexual victimization, assertive communication, or feelings of self-efficacy over the follow-up periods. Program group women who were victimized during the 3-month follow-up period evidenced less self-blame and greater offender blame for their assaults than control group women who were victimized following the program. Given that program women evidenced a greater awareness of sexual assault at the end of the study than control group women, the difficulty in addressing the impact of programming on rates of sexual victimization is discussed.
Hollander, J. A. (2010). "Why Do Women Take Self-Defense Classes?" Violence Against Women 16(4): 459-478.
Given the positive benefits of self-defense training for women, it is important to understand how women come to enroll in self-defense classes. Using data from a longitudinal study of university women, I explore the reasons women give for taking a self-defense class. I find that friends' recommendations, visions of the "possible selves" they could become, and fear of violence were the most frequently reported reasons; having experienced a past assault was rarely cited as a reason for enrolling. In addition, many women who had never enrolled in a self-defense class reported having considered doing so. I explore barriers to learning self-defense and find that logistical issues such as time, money, and availability of classes were the most frequently reported reasons for not enrolling.
Michener, S. O. (1997). "An analysis of rape aggression defense as a method of self-empowerment for women." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 57(11-A): 4961.
Rape Aggression Defense is a senior high school and college program that is in need of study, evaluation, and analysis for participants, instructors, authors, and administrators who are searching for an effective rape prevention program. Although there is presently no program for men, the possibility remains that a "commonsense self-defense" course could be developed for future studies in this area. This study examines the effects of the Rape Aggression Defense course. The participants were female college students, faculty, and staff members, approximately 18-60 years old, single, married, and divorced. They were Indian, Asian, African American, and Caucasian. Women who completed a Rape Aggression Defense course were compared with women who did not take a Rape Aggression Defense course. Differences were found between women who participated in Rape Aggression Defense and those who did not based on measures of interpersonal self-efficacy, self-defense self-efficacy, helplessness, assertion probability, and defenseless/able to defend self. Significant increases in the above listed measures are reported at pretest to posttest and were maintained at pretest to follow-up test. Based on this study, this researcher concludes that Rape Aggression Defense graduates are less likely to be victims of sexual assault. Rape Aggression Defense prepares women to deal with the outside world, or with the world when they start living on their own.
Orchowski, L. M., et al. (2008). "Evaluation of a sexual assault risk reduction and self-defense program: A prospective analysis of a revised protocol." Psychology of Women Quarterly 32(2): 204-218.
The current study extends the development and evaluation of an existing and previously evaluated sexual assault risk reduction program with a self-defense component for college women (N = 300). The program protocol was revised to address psychological barriers to responding assertively to risky dating situations, and a placebo-control group was utilized rather than a wait-list control group. Relative to the placebo-control group, the program was effective in increasing levels of self-protective behaviors, self-efficacy in resisting against potential attackers, and use of assertive sexual communication over a 4-month interim. Results also suggested reduction of incidence of rape among program participants over the 2-month follow-up. Implications for future development and evaluation of sexual assault risk reduction programming are presented.
Prevention – sorority
Anderson, K. M. and F. S. Danis (2007). "Collegiate Sororities and Dating Violence: An Exploratory Study of Informal and Formal Helping Strategies." Violence Against Women 13(1): 87-100.
Women in collegiate sororities are more at risk for violence within the context of dating relationships than is the general population of college women. Because assaulted women are more likely to turn to their peer networks for support, this study explores the formal and informal helping strategies available to sorority members within the context of their sororities. A total of 35 women representing 17 different sororities participated in 4 focus groups. Although the central finding uncovered how violence is largely omitted from the formal agendas of sororities, community and campus-based programs addressing the issue can build on their sincere interest in helping each other.
Moynihan, M. M., et al. (2011). "Sisterhood may be powerful for reducing sexual and intimate partner violence: an evaluation of the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members." Violence Against Women 17(6): 703-719.
Sorority members may be at greater risk than other college women for sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluated the Bringing in the Bystander in-person program with sorority members who participated in the program (n = 30) compared with those who did not (n = 18). Results indicate that program participants showed increased bystander efficacy, likelihood to help, and responsibility for ending violence without unintended "backlash" effects. Implications include a call for future programming with more diverse sorority members over longer time. In addition, we discuss what the findings might mean for formal campus policies and practices for preventing sexual violence and IPV.
Prevention – student leaders
Banyard, V. L., et al. (2009). "Reducing Sexual Violence on Campus: The Role of Student Leaders as Empowered Bystanders." Journal of College Student Development 50(4): 446-457.
Sexual violence is a widespread problem for college communities. Students, faculty, and staff are increasingly involved in prevention efforts. To date, however, evaluation of sexual violence prevention programs has shown mixed results. One promising new practice teaches segments Of college communities to be engaged, positive bystanders. It aims to both raise awareness about the problem of sexual violence and build skills that individuals can use to end it. The framework is grounded in research about the causes of sexual assault on campuses and factors identified by health behavior theories for changing attitudes and behavior. Evaluation of data using a bystander model is just beginning to appear. The current study presents a brief evaluation Of one bystander program conducted with two groups of student leaders on one midsize public university campus in the Northeast. Results show the program to be effective, even among a group of student leaders who have a higher level of general awareness of campus community problems and training in working with students. Implications for programming and future research are discussed.
Christensen, M. (2013). "Using feminist leadership to build a performance-based, peer education program." Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice 12(3): 254-269.
This article explores the experiences of six college students learning and using feminist leadership techniques for the creation and implementation of a performance-based, peer education, sexual assault prevention program. The program was established and governed through the use of two models for feminist leadership, Visions; Building a Feminist Community and Theatre for Community, Conflict, and Dialogue. Both models emphasize a collaborative leadership style and process, which includes a strengths focus, ethic of care, and modeling responsibility to the group. Data were collected via in-depth interviews, field notes, and written evaluations focusing on the group experience. Data reveal how the creation and implementation of this program impacts students' engagement with feminist leadership practices and how this shapes them as leaders. Data also illustrate valuable implications for future practice, policy, and research development.
Christensen, M. C. (2013). "Using feminist leadership to build a performance-based, peer education program." Qualitative Social Work 12(3): 254-269.
This article explores the experiences of six college students learning and using feminist leadership techniques for the creation and implementation of a performance-based, peer education, sexual assault prevention program. The program was established and governed through the use of two models for feminist leadership, Visions; Building a Feminist Community and Theatre for Community, Conflict, and Dialogue. Both models emphasize a collaborative leadership style and process, which includes a strengths focus, ethic of care, and modeling responsibility to the group. Data were collected via in-depth interviews, field notes, and written evaluations focusing on the group experience. Data reveal how the creation and implementation of this program impacts students' engagement with feminist leadership practices and how this shapes them as leaders. Data also illustrate valuable implications for future practice, policy, and research development.
Lonsway, K. A., et al. (1998). "Beyond "no means no" - Outcomes of an intensive program to train peer facilitators for campus acquaintance rape education." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 13(1): 73-92.
As part of a larger multimethod evaluation, this study examined the effects of a uniquely intensive rape education program. Participants included 74 undergraduates (53 women and 21 men) enrolled in Campus Acquaintance Rape Education (CARE), a semester-long university course designed to train peer facilitators to conduct rape education workshops. Ninety-six students (58 women and 38 men) enrolled in a general human sexuality course constituted a specialized comparison group. First, quantitative analysis of pre- and postcourse responses suggested that comprehensive attitude change occurred for students in CARE but not for those in the human sexuality course. Next, qualitative analyses explored the differences between pre- and postcourse responses to videotaped scenarios involving (hetero)sexual conflict. Responses suggested that, as a result of participating in CARE, both women and men became more willing and able to directly express themselves and assert their needs in ways that facilitated increased sexual communication. Finally, follow-up investigation conducted 2 years after course participation revealed that CARE students were less accepting of cultural rape myths than those in human sexuality.
Ragouzeos, Z. (2012). "Do the sexual assault messages of a peer-led, theatrical, health education program impact the male and female rape myths acceptance of first-year students at a large, urban, private, East Coast University?" Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 72(7-A): 2577.
College campuses are at-risk environments for sexual assault (CDC, 2004). This quantitative study assessed students' attitudes about sexual assault before college (study 1), as well as and whether a theatrical intervention upon arrival produced changes in student attitudes generally, and according to their gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation (study 2). Female and male rape myth acceptance was measured using the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, (Burt, 1980), and the Male Rape Myths Scale, MRMS, (Kerr Melanson, 1999). At baseline (n=814), over 90% of students accepted at least one rape myth statement on each scale. Following the intervention, there was improvement in total scores on both scales. There were also differences on the basis of students' gender, race and sexual orientation. This study demonstrated that rape myth acceptance continues to exist on college campuses. Colleges should cater their messages to specific groups on campus with the hope of preventing future victimization.