Banyard, V. L., et al. (2010). "Sexual violence prevention: The role of stages of change." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(1): 111-135.
Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly for the primary prevention of this problem in communities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the utility of applying the transtheoretical model of readiness for change to sexual violence prevention and evaluation. A review of this model and its application in one promising new primary prevention program is provided, along with exploratory data about what is learned about program design and effectiveness when the model is used. The study also represents one of the first attempts to operationalize and create specific measures to quantify readiness for change in the context of sexual violence prevention and evaluation. Implications for program development and evaluation research are discussed.
Casey, E. A. and T. P. Lindhorst (2009). "Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of sexual assault: prevention in peer and community contexts." Trauma Violence Abuse 10(2): 91-114.
Although sexual assault prevention programs have been increasingly successful at improving knowledge about sexual violence and decreasing rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs among participants, reducing sexually assaultive conduct itself remains an elusive outcome. This review considers efforts to support change for individuals by creating prevention strategies that target peer network and community-level factors that support sexual violence. To this end, the article examines successful ecological prevention models from other prevention fields, identifies the components of multilevel prevention that appear critical to efficacy and discusses their application to existing and emerging sexual violence prevention strategies.
Franklin, C. A., et al. (2012). "Assessing the effect of routine activity theory and self-control on property, personal, and sexual assault victimization." Criminal Justice and Behavior 39(10): 1296-1315.
This study used a sample of 2,230 female university students to assess the applicability of routine activity theory and self-control on property, personal, and sexual assault victimization. Results indicate that (a) both self-control deficits and participation in drug sale behavior were significantly correlated with increased property, personal, and sexual assault victimization; (b) increased partying and shopping frequency and off-campus housing significantly and substantively correlated with increased property victimization; (c) off-campus housing was correlated with increased personal victimization; and (d) increased number of days spent on campus and increased frequency of partying significantly increased sexual assault victimization, net of controls. Future directions for the integration of feminist theory and strategies for crime prevention are discussed.
Kilmartin, C. and J. Allison (2007). "Men's violence against women: Theory, research, and activism." 277.
(from the cover) Men's Violence Against Women offers a balance of clinical and social psychological theory and research, as well as prevention and intervention techniques with the purpose of understanding and ultimately ending gender-based violence. The authors address several forms of violence, including rape, intimate partner violence, stalking, and sexual harassment in a contemporary linguistic style carefully crafted to avoid victim blaming. Although most men do not perpetrate violence against women, such violence is not a "women's" issue; it will take the strength and courage of both women and men to solve this human issue. This book moves full circle in its coverage of the topic as it explores the silent epidemic of men's violence against women, the grave consequences of this violence on both individuals and society, and the historical and current foundations that serve to both criminalize and tolerate men's violence against women. The authors describe a variety of efforts to treat both offenders and victims highlighting both their vital importance and their insufficiency in preventing violence. The final part of the book contains descriptions of model violence prevention approaches and techniques for implementing these programs. Men's Violence Against Women is intended as a text for courses in gender-based violence in a variety of disciplines including psychology, sociology, and women's, men's, and/or gender studies. The book is also a valuable resource for college and community gender-based violence prevention and intervention program providers.
lLittleton, H. L. and A. Grills-Taquechel (2011). "Evaluation of an information-processing model following sexual assault." Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 3(4): 421-429.
There is growing recognition that individuals vary in their response to traumatic experiences. Resick and Schnicke (1992) developed an information-processing model of trauma response patterns, theorizing that individuals vary in how they integrate the experience into their schematic beliefs. Specifically, individuals can respond to trauma by assimilation, altering the trauma to fit with extant schemas; accommodation, altering extant schemas; or overaccommodation, engaging in maladaptive schema change. Littleton (2007) supported that these response patterns are reflected in distinct coping patterns among rape victims. The current study utilized latent profile analysis (LPA) to replicate Littleton's (2007) findings in a sample of 340 college rape victims, as well as evaluated the extent to which these response patterns were related to distress, trauma-related schemas, revictimization risk behaviors, and revictimization. Results of the LPA supported the existence of the three response patterns. In addition, victims classified into the three response patterns differed in their distress, adherence to trauma-related schemas, and revictimization risk behaviors. While no significant differences in revictimization rates were found, revictimization was common. Implications of the findings for future research and intervention are discussed.
Luthra, R. and C. A. Gidycz (2006). "Dating violence among college men and women: evaluation of a theoretical model." J Interpers Violence 21(6): 717-731.
This study empirically evaluates the Riggs and O'Leary (1989) model of dating violence. A sample of 200 college students completes assessments concerning the occurrence of violence in their dating relationships. The incidence of self-reported partner violence is 25% for women and 10% for men. Multivariate logistic regression analyses are performed to determine the most salient predictors of dating violence for each gender. Findings reveal that the model is more accurate in predicting female, as compared with male perpetration of dating violence. The model accurately classifies 83% of violent women and only 30% of violent men. This study has several implications for the field of dating violence. Results indicate that although there is some degree of overlap, variant constructs predict violence for each gender. Identifying these constructs will guide prevention efforts in more effectively decreasing the occurrence of dating violence.
Nurius, P. S., et al. (2004). "Women's situational coping with acquaintance sexual assault - Applying an appraisal-based model." Violence Against Women 10(5): 450-478.
Drawing on theories of appraisal-based coping, the present study applied structural modeling to examine relationships among personal goal orientations, primary and secondary appraisals of acquaintance sexual assault, and women's emotional and behavioral responses to it. Based on 415 college women's reports of a sexual assault experience, the model shows both direct and indirect effects. Assertive, diplomatic, and immobilized responding were each predicted by a unique profile of appraisals and orientations; personal goal orientations and primary appraisals were completely mediated by secondary appraisals. Ways that these findings can facilitate self-protective coping in an acquaintance sexual assault situation, leading to the development of effective, well-tailored self-defense and resistance programs, are discussed.
O'Byrne, R., et al. (2008). ""If a girl doesn't say 'no'...": Young men, rape and claims of 'insufficient knowledge'." Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 18(3): 168-193.
Most psychological theories of rape tend to stress factors internal to both rapists and their victims in accounting for the phenomenon. Unlike such theories, social psychological and feminist accounts have drawn attention to social and cultural factors as productive of rape, and have criticized psychological accounts on the grounds that they often serve, paradoxically, to cement pre-existing 'common-sense'. In this paper we examine the ways in which young Australian men draw upon widely culturally shared accounts, or interpretative repertoires, of rape to exculpate rapists. In particular, we discuss the reliance placed on a 'lay' version of Tannen's (1992) 'miscommunication model' of (acquaintance) rape and detail the use of this account-the claim that rape is a consequence of men's 'not knowing'-as a device to accomplish exculpation. Implications of our methods for capturing young people's understanding of sexual coercion, rape and consent, and for the design of 'rape prevention' programmes, are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quintanilla-Ng, D. A. (2006). "An ecological model of college campus rape." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 67(5-B): 2879.
Young women entering post secondary institutions face the disturbing but realistic threat of becoming victims of sexual assault, more frequently at the hands of acquaintances than strangers. Current empirical evidence suggests that women on college campuses are at greater risk than women in the general population. The effects of rape can be devastating for all involved especially the victim. It is imperative to develop the most effective measures possible to address and prevent the occurrence of sexual assault. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to examine all of the data relevant to the possible etiology of rape in order to comprehend the underlying dynamics as thoroughly as possible. This paper examined the existing literature on college campus acquaintance rape from an ecological perspective, using a model proposed by psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner. Intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as group and socio-cultural factors were explored as they impact the processes underlying the occurrence of rape. Social and cultural factors were found to interact with intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group dynamics. This led to the contention that the acknowledgment and examination of social and cultural influences on the behavior and dynamics of individuals involved in the occurrence of college campus rape may yield more comprehensive data regarding the etiology and prevention of rape.