|Program Title||Media Aware|
|Overview||This online program is unique because it addresses a wide range of topics related to healthy sexuality, including: dispelling rape myths, safe use of alcohol, consent, contraception, STI prevention, and healthy relationships. Through a series of lessons, quizzes and videos, the program relies on social norms theory to promote sexual health and develop critical thinking skills through media literacy education (MLE).|
|program name||level of evidence"Supported by evidence, promising direction or emerging"||bystander"Bystander programs engage men and women not (primarily) as potential perpetrators or victims, but rather as potential bystanders to situations involving sexual or intimate partner violence. Bystander prevention programs presume that all members of the community have a role in shifting norms to prevent violence.... The bystander model includes tools and ideas for action and strongly encourages each person to make a difference." (Gibbons & Evans, 2013, page 5)||empathy"Empathy-based programs give participants the skills to understand sexual violence, provide compassionate responses to disclosures, and reduce the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration by males." (Gibbons & Evans, 2013, page 4)||dispelling
rape myths"These programs address common misconceptions and myths about circumstances, causes, and realities of sexual violence. Topics often include rates of assault and reporting, definitions of consent, and clarifying common circumstances of assault." (Gibbons & Evans, 2013)
|alcoholThese programs discuss the role alcohol plays in sexual violence and how drinking impacts the communication of consent.||otherAdditional topics of focus are listed here.|
|Media Aware||Supported by Evidence||X||X||X||X||evaluated for use at community colleges|
|Author||Tracy Scull, PhD|
By the end of the program students will demonstrate:
Media Aware relies on popular media to analyze norms around sexuality. The online module uses reality TV clips, pop music songs and other media sources to explore themes related to drug and alcohol use, health relationships, and health sexuality. Videos show racially diverse teenagers reacting to this media, and prompts participants (through quizzes and other activities) to consider their views on whether or not the clips reflect their reality.
Media Aware contains 5-modules. It can take up to 2 hours to complete the entire program.
It is self-administered, multimedia, web-based program for computer and mobile Internet browsers that is interactive.
Media Aware has been designed for older adolescents (ages 18-19) and young adults. The recently published RCT tested the program on community college students.
|Theoretical basis for approach||
Media Aware is different from traditional sexual health education programming because emphasis is placed on becoming aware of a less conscience influence on sexual behavior choices (i.e., media messages) and developing critical thinking skills to analyze and evaluate media messaging. The Message Interpretation Process (MIP) model 1 offers a framework for understanding how logical and emotional processing pathways contribute to whether a media message is internalized and influential in affecting decision-making. Following this model, media literacy education (MLE) programs have been developed to strengthen logical processing skills and encourage the critical evaluation of media messages with the goal of reducing the influence of unhealthy media messages related to sex and relationships. MLE has been shown to improve media message processing skills, as well as decrease perceived norms related to other unhealthy behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated the short-term effects of MLE programs on early adolescents’ sexual risk behavior intentions and antecedents.
A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Media Aware program for community college students. Community college students who used the Media Aware program: were less likely to report risky sexual behaviors, showed an improvement in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behavioral intentions related to sexual health, and reported increased media skepticism.
|Considerations for administrators||
This is one of few programs that is targeted towards community college students and has a strong evidence base to support its efficacy for that population. Though the program my not be an obvious choice from a Clery and Title IX compliance angle, it is invaluable because of its comprehensive approach to adolescent sexual health, and may help your institution meet other grant-related objectives related to STI prevention and teen pregnancy.
|How to access this program||
Cost depends on number of users and length of agreement. Visit http://mediaawarecollegeprograms.com/ to learn more.
Austin, E.W., Johnson, K.K. (1997). Immediate and delayed effects of media literacy training on third graders’ decision making for alcohol. Health Communications. 9(4):323-349. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc0904_3
Kupersmidt, J.B., Scull, T.M., Benson, J.W. (2012, February). Improving media message interpretation processing skills to promote healthy decision making about substance use: The effects of the middle school Media Ready curriculum. Journal of Health Communication Int Perspect.1-18. doi:10.1080/10810730.2011.635769
Pinkleton, B.E., Austin, E.W., Cohen, M., Miller, A., Fitzgerald, E. (2007) A statewide evaluation of the effectiveness of media literacy training to prevent tobacco use among adolescents. Journal of Health Communications. 21(1): 23-34. doi:10.1080/10410230701283306
Scull, T.M., Malik, C.V., Kupersmidt, J.B. (2014). A media literacy education approach to teaching adolescents comprehensive sexual health education. Journal of Media Literacy Education. 6(1):1-14. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828968/
Scull, T.M., Kupersmidt, B.J., Malik, C.V., & Keefe, E.M. (2017, September 12). Examining the efficacy of an mHealth media literacy education program for sexual health promotion in older adolescents attending community college. Journal of American College Health. doi:10.1080/07448481.2017.1393822
Pinkleton, B.E., Austin, E.W., Chen, Y.C., Cohen, M. (2012). The role of media literacy in shaping adolescents’ understanding of and responses to sexual portrayals in mass media. Journal of Health Communications. 17: 460-476. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2011.635770
Pinkleton, B.E., Austin, E.W., Cohen, M., Chen, Y.Y., Fitzgerald, E. (2008). Effects of a peer-led media literacy curriculum on adolescents’ knowledge and attitudes toward sexual behavior and media portrayals of sex. Health Communications. 23: 462-472. doi:10.1080/10410230802342135