|Program Title||Enhanced Access, Acknowledge, Act (EAAA) Sexual Assault Resistance|
|Overview||The EAAA program is a 12 hour, small-group, educational program designed to help college women resist acquaintance sexual assault. Rigorous program evaluation has demonstrated that the program reduces the risk of victimization.|
|program name||level of evidence"Supported by evidence, promising direction or emerging"||bystander"Bystander programs engage men and women not (primarily) as potential perpetrators or victims, but rather as potential bystanders to situations involving sexual or intimate partner violence. Bystander prevention programs presume that all members of the community have a role in shifting norms to prevent violence.... The bystander model includes tools and ideas for action and strongly encourages each person to make a difference." (Gibbons & Evans, 2013, page 5)||empathy"Empathy-based programs give participants the skills to understand sexual violence, provide compassionate responses to disclosures, and reduce the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration by males." (Gibbons & Evans, 2013, page 4)||dispelling
rape myths"These programs address common misconceptions and myths about circumstances, causes, and realities of sexual violence. Topics often include rates of assault and reporting, definitions of consent, and clarifying common circumstances of assault." (Gibbons & Evans, 2013)
|alcoholThese programs discuss the role alcohol plays in sexual violence and how drinking impacts the communication of consent.||otherAdditional topics of focus are listed here.|
|Enhanced Access, Acknowledge, Act (EAAA) Sexual Assault Resistance||Supported by Evidence||X||X||X||for students who identify as women|
The EAAA program aims to
Four sessions, each three hours long
Materials needed to implement the EAAA program include: an EAAA Program Kit (provided with Campus Trainer workshop, a computer and projector, 2 presentation easels, 2 strike pads, and several print-outs. Visit this page for more details about the implementation logistics.
Female undergraduate students
|Theoretical basis for approach||
The EAAA program is based on feminist and social psychological theory, most notably Nurius and Norris’s (1996) cognitive ecological model of women’s responses to sexual coercion as well as reviews of research evidence (i.e., by Rozee and Koss (2011) and Ullman (1997) on the most effective strategies for resisting sexual assault).The fourth unit dealing with positive sexuality is adapted from the Our Whole Lives Sexuality (OWLS) education curricula (Kimball, 2000).
The University of Windsor conducted a rigorous evaluation of the program using a randomized-control design. The study demonstrated the 1-year risk of rape was significantly lower among those who completed the EAAA program (Senn et al., 2015). Further research has determined that these effects last for up to 2 years (Senn et al., 2017). In addition, the program reduced women-blaming as well as self-blame in women who took the program and were subsequently sexually assaulted. The CDC (Basile et al., 2016) has recently included this program as one of the very few programs (of any type) available with demonstrated effectiveness for sexual assault prevention.
|Participating colleges and universities||
Carleton University, University of Windsor, Concordia University of Edmonton, University of Otago, and Florida Atlantic University.
|Considerations for administrators||
This program has demonstrated efficacy in reducing the incidence of rape, attempted rape, and other forms of sexual violence, which no other programs on this website have accomplished. This type of evidence could make it easier to get buy-in and funding to implement the program. Because the program is only for students who identify as women, most campuses will only be able to implement it as supplementary to required programming for incoming students. Keep in mind that there may be resistance from stakeholders to bringing in a program that emphasizes self-defense as a risk-reduction tactic, since the field has been moving away from this approach because many feel it has contributed to a culture of victim-blaming.
|How to access this program||
The SARE Centre offers a 6-day EAAA Train the Trainer workshop. The cost is $3,000 for American institutions and $3,500 plus tax for Canadian institutions. Visit the website or contact SARE Centre for more information.
Basile, K. C., DeGue, S., Jones, K., Freire, K., Dills, J., Smith, S. G., & Raiford, J. L. (2016). STOP SV: A technical package to prevent sexual violence. Retrieved from Atlanta, Georgia: https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/sv-prevention-technical-package.pdf
Kimball, R.S. (2000). Our Whole Lives: sexuality for adults. Boston: Unitarian Universalist Association.
Nurius, P. S., & Norris, J. (1996). A cognitive ecological model of women's response to male sexual coercion in dating. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 8(1), 117-139.
Rozee, P.D., Koss, M.P., (2001). Rape: A Century of Resistance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25 (4), 295-311. doi: 10.1111/1471-6402.00030
Senn, C.Y., Eliasziw, M., Barata, P.C., Thurston, W.E., Newby-Clark, I.R., Radtke, L., & Hobden, K.L. (2015, June 11). Efficacy of a Sexual Assault Resistance Program for University Women. New England Journal of Medicine, 372 (24), 2326 - 2335. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa1411131
Senn, C. Y., Eliasziw, M., Hobden, K. L., Newby-Clark, I. R., Barata, P. C., Radtke, H. L., & Thurston, W. E. (2017). Secondary and 2-Year Outcomes of a Sexual Assault Resistance Program for University Women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 0361684317690119.
Ullman, S.E. (1997). Review and critique of empirical studies of rape avoidance. Criminal Justice Behavior, 24(2), 177-204. doi: 10.1177/0093854897024002003