Abbey, A., et al. (2001). "Attitudinal, experiential, and situational predictors of sexual assault perpetration." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 16(8): 784-807.
Examined predictors of sexual assault perpetration. 343 college males (aged 18-53 yrs) described either a sexual assault they had committed or their worst date, and completed questionnaires on social desirability, attitudes about gender roles, attitude about alcohol, past sexual experiences, past misperception experiences, peer support for forced sex, and sexual assault perpetration. Results show that a third of Ss reported they had perpetrated some form of sexual assault. Attitudes about gender roles and alcohol, number of consensual sex partners, how well the S knew the female, how isolated the setting was, alcohol consumption during the event, the S's misperception of the female's cues during the event, and prior consensual sexual activity between the male and the female discriminated between sexual assaults and worst dates. Additionally, tactics used to obtain sex, self-attributions, the perceived seriousness of the assault, and the extent to which it disrupted relationships with others significantly discriminated between Ss who committed forced sexual contact, sexual coercion, and rape. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering both individual characteristics and situational factors in theories and prevention activities.
Berkel, L. A., et al. (2004). "Gender role attitudes, religion, and spirituality as predictors of domestic violence attitudes in white college students." Journal of College Student Development 45(2): 119-133.
In this study we investigated gender role attitudes, religion, and spirituality as predictors of beliefs about violence against women in a sample of 316 White college students. Results indicated that gender role attitudes were the best overall predictor of domestic violence beliefs. Spirituality also contributed to the models for men and women. Implications and intervention strategies to address dating violence among college students are discussed.
Berkowitz, A. (1992). "College men as perpetrators of acquaintance rape and sexual assault: A review of recent research." Journal of American College Health 40(4): 175-181.
Reviews literature since 1980 on college men as perpetrators of acquaintance rape and other forms of sexual assault. Topics include (1) the definition and incidence of acquaintance rape and sexual assault, (2) perpetrator characteristics, (3) situations associated with sexual assault, and (4) men's misperception of women's sexual intent. An integrated theory of sexual assault is proposed, along with implications for the development of effective rape-prevention programs for men.
Buddie, A. M. and K. A. Parks (2003). "The role of the bar context and social behaviors on women's risk for aggression." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 18(12): 1378-1393.
The present study is an initial examination of the extent to which the environmental characteristics of bars and social behaviors that women engage in when drinking in this setting are associated with bar-related aggression. As expected, several environmental characteristics (e.g., young patrons, pool playing) and social behaviors (e.g., alcohol consumption, leaving the bar with strangers) were associated with more severe bar-related aggression experienced by women during the past year These results shed light on the significant problem of bar-related aggression against women and can potentially be used to develop prevention and educational programs.
Cass, A. I. (2007). "Routine activities and sexual assault: An analysis of individual- and school-level factors." Violence and Victims 22(3): 350-366.
The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.
Fisher, B. S., et al. (2010). "What Distinguishes Single from Recurrent Sexual Victims? The Role of Lifestyle-Routine Activities and First-Incident Characteristics." Justice Quarterly 27(1): 102-129.
An unsettling reality is that a substantial proportion of women who have been sexually victimized are recurrent victims who experience more than one sexual victimization while young adults. What is not well understood is why some women experience a single sexual victimization whereas others experience recurrent sexual victimizations. Using a sample of 4,399 college women from the National College Women Sexual Victimization study, we examine lifestyle-routine activities and first-incident characteristics that could place women at risk of being recurrent sexual victims during an academic year. Our results show that none of the lifestyle-routine activities variables differentiated single and recurrent victims; the factors that predicted being a single victim are similarly predictive of being a recurrent victim. However, women who used self-protective action during the first incident reduced their likelihood of being a recurrent victim. Implications for the development of sexual victimization risk-reduction and prevention programs are also discussed.
Fisher, B. S., et al. (1998). "Crime in the ivory tower: The level and sources of student victimization." Criminology 36(3): 671-710.
Contrary to the image of college campuses as "ivory towers," the victimization of college students recently has been portrayed as a serious problem deserving policy intervention. Based on interviews designed after the National Crime Victimization Survey, which were conducted with 3,472 randomly selected students across 12 institutions, we examined both the level and sources of students' victimization More than one-third of the sample reported being victims during the 1993-94 academic year. Informed by the lifestyle-routine activities approach, the analysis revealed that the risk of property victimization was increased by proximity to crime, target attractiveness, exposure, and lack of guardianship. The main predictor of violent victimization was a lifestyle that included high levels of partying on campus at night and the recreational use of drugs.
Frydenborg, C. E. (1999). "Possible predictors and effects of rape during the first semester of the first year of college. (gender)." Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 60(5-A): 1461.
Rape has become an area of strong concern especially on college campuses. One in every four college women experiences a sexual assault (Koss, 1987; Roiphe, 1993). The purpose of this study was to explore rape on campus, symptoms of victims, rates of perpetration and characteristics of perpetrators. A pool of 850 first-year students were invited to voluntarily participate. Students were administered the Self-Rating Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, 1978), Self-Analysis Form (Cattell, 1963), Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Burt, 1980; Newman & Colon, 1994); Attitudes Toward Women Scale (Spence & Helmreich, 1978), Sexual Experience Survey (Koss & Oros, 1982), Social Desirability Scale (Strahan & Gerbasi, 1972), Sexual Aversion Scale (females only; Katz, Gipson, Kearl & Kriskovich, 1989) and the Hostility Toward Women Scale (males only; Lonsway & Fitzgerald, 1995). Administrations were conducted during the first semester of college (September and November). It was hypothesized that there would be an increase in sexual assaults and sexual experience from September to November and that this increase in sexual experience, for males, would lead to an increase in self-esteem. Women reporting a sexual assault or sexually aggressive act would report an increase in rape myth acceptance, psychological distress, and sexual aversion, lower self-esteem, and more non-feministic views toward women. It was hypothesized that males who reported perpetrating sexually assaultive or aggressive acts against women would report higher levels of rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women and more non-feministic attitudes toward women. A sample size of 150 males and 215 females at baseline, and 120 males and 151 females at follow-up, was obtained. Results indicated a high prevalence of sexual assaults on campus, an increase in sexual experience but, not an increase self-esteem. Female victims of sexual assault reported higher levels of depression and anxiety while males who were sexually aggressive or assaultive reported higher levels of rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women and more non feministic attitudes. This study supports existing research illustrating rape and sexual violence as a problem within our society and on college campuses. It indicates the need for future research pertaining to the characteristics of perpetrators and victims to determine more effective prevention tactics.
Himelein, M. J. (1995). "RISK-FACTORS FOR SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION IN DATING - A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF COLLEGE-WOMEN." Psychology of Women Quarterly 19(1): 31-48.
In this longitudinal study of college women, nine risk characteristics assessed prior to the start of college were examined in the effort to identify predictors of sexual victimization in college dating. A total of 100 women were followed for 32 months, with information about personal history, behaviors, and attitudes collected at Time 1 and information about subsequent sexual victimization collected at Time 2. Although four risk factors were significantly associated with victimization, a logistic regression analysis revealed that the best prediction model contained only two variables: Precollege sexual victimization in dating was positively correlated with college victimization, and sexual conservatism was negatively correlated with college victimization. Discussion focused on the needs for improved sex education for teenagers, prevention programs aimed at the precollege level, and increased research and clinical attention to the phenomenon of revictimization.
Hines, D. A., et al. (2012). "Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students." Violence and Victims 27(6): 922-940.
College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.
Hoyt, T. and E. A. Yeater (2011). "Individual and Situational Influences on Men's Responses to Dating and Social Situations." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(9): 1723-1740.
This study employed multilevel modeling to evaluate individual and situational influences on men's responses to hypothetical dating and social situations. Three hundred and fifty college men completed measures assessing their propensity for sexual aggression and provided written responses to 10 written vignettes, each of which was followed by four statements provided by women that varied in their degree of effectiveness in decreasing victimization risk. Rape-supportive attitudes, poor heterosocial perception, earlier age of first sexual experience, and number of lifetime sexual partners were significant predictors of sexually aggressive responses. The presence of alcohol use, social isolation, relationship intimacy, and less effective responses from the woman involved also were significant predictors of sexually aggressive responses. Certain individual risk factors (i.e., poor heterosocial perception, rape-supportive attitudes) showed a stronger relationship to sexually aggressive responses in the context of situational risk factors (i.e., alcohol use, isolation). These findings indicate the importance of assessing both individual and situational influences on men's risk for engaging in sexually aggressive behavior.
Littleton, H. (2014). "Interpersonal Violence on College Campuses: Understanding Risk Factors and Working to Find Solutions." Trauma Violence Abuse.
This commentary discusses the contributions of Drs. Antonia Abbey and Catherine Kaukinen to our understanding of risk factors for sexual and physical aggression among college students. Major contributions of their work are outlined. These include Abbey's contributions to our understanding of trajectories of sexually aggressive behavior among college men, risk factors for engaging in sexual aggression among men, and the role of alcohol in sexual aggression. In addition, Kaukinen's work has increased our understanding of the frequency of violence in college dating relationships as well as the association of violent relationships with health risk behaviors. Directions for future research are also outlined including a need to identify trajectories of violence risk as well as a need to understand the complex interrelationships among health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence. Finally, implications for practice and university policy are discussed, including a focus on the development of effective preventive strategies and proactive responses to violence.
Moore, C. D. and C. K. Waterman (1999). "Predicting self-protection against sexual assault in dating relationships among heterosexual men and women, gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals." Journal of College Student Development 40(2): 132-140.
To measure self-protective behavior on dates, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) was developed. The relationship among previous sexual victimization, self-perceived risk for sexual assault, rape awareness education, gender of dating partner and DSPARS scores was assessed among 152 college students. Forty-two percent of the sample was male (mean age 21.08 years) and 58% was female (mean age 20.30 years). The participants were predominantly White (74%), with the remainder of the sample identifying as Latino (7%), Asian (7%), Black (5%), or other (3%). Sixty-eight percent of the sample self-identified as heterosexual, 10% as lesbian, 15% as gay, 5% as bisexual and 2% did not indicate their sexual orientation.
Rickert, V. I. and C. M. Wiemann (1998). "Date rape among adolescents and young adults." J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 11(4): 167-175.
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults are four times more likely to be victims of sexual assault than women in all other age groups. In the vast majority of these cases, the perpetrator is an acquaintance of the victim. Date rape is a subset of acquaintance rape where nonconsensual sex occurs between two people who are in a romantic relationship. METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE and Current Concepts search for articles relating to date rape and then systematically reviewed all relevant articles. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of date or acquaintance rape ranges from 13% to 27% among college-age women and 20% to a high of 68% among adolescents. Demographic characteristics that increase vulnerability to date rape include younger age at first date, early sexual activity, earlier age of menarche, a past history of sexual abuse or prior sexual victimization, and being more accepting of rape myths and violence toward women. Other risk factors include date-specific behaviors such as who initiated, who paid expenses, who drove, date location and activity, as well as the use of alcohol or illicit drugs such as flunitrazepam (Rohypnol). Alcohol use that occurs within the context of the date can lead to: the misinterpretation of friendly cues as sexual invitations, diminished coping responses, and the female's inability to ward off a potential attack. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal research designs are needed to further our understanding of sexual violence among adolescents and young adults and the most effective ways to eliminate it. Understanding and comparing research findings would be easier if consensus regarding the definitions of date rape, sexual aggression, and sexual assault was obtained. Finally, primary and secondary date and acquaintance rape prevention programs must be developed and systematically evaluated.
Turchik, J. A., et al. (2009). "Prediction of sexual assault experiences in college women based on rape scripts: A prospective analysis." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 77(2): 361-366.
Although script theory has been applied to sexual assault (e.g., H. Frith & C. Kitzinger, 2001; A. S. Kahn, V. A. Andreoli Mathie, & C. Torgler, 1994), women's scripts of rape have not been examined in relation to predicting sexual victimization experiences. The purpose of the current study was to examine how elements of women's sexual assault scripts predicted their sexual assault experiences over a follow-up period. The authors used data from a baseline and follow-up session for 339 undergraduate women. The results suggest that women who constructed narratives containing certain elements were more likely to report a sexual assault over the academic quarter. Specifically, narratives containing the woman utilizing nonforceful resistance, the woman having less control over the outcome of the situation, the assault happening outdoors, the assault being more severe, and the woman having known the perpetrator less time were predictive of reported sexual victimization over the 8-week follow-up period. Additionally, having a history of adolescent sexual victimization was also predictive of reported sexual victimization over the quarter. These findings have important implications in sexual assault risk-reduction programming, which are discussed.
Warkentin, J. B. (2010). "Dating violence and sexual assault among college men: Co-occurrence, predictors, and differentiating factors." Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 70(9-B): 5853.
The present study was designed to test a modified model of sexual aggression in general, and verbal abuse and physical violence in a dating relationship. In addition, it examined the co-occurrence rates of aggressive behaviors, and the cumulative effect of risk factors on the likelihood of engaging in violent behavior. Finally, the present study looked at which predictor variables could successfully differentiate between the various forms of aggression, and between those who engage in one or two forms of aggression and those who engage in all three forms of aggression. Participants included 514 college men who completed surveys assessing for history of sexual aggression, history of dating violence, family violence, adolescent delinquency, sexual and dating experiences, hostile attitudes toward women, gender role strain, psychopathy, sensation seeking, empathy, narcissism, depression, self-esteem, substance use, and social desirability. A path analysis was conducted to predict perpetration of sexual aggression, and verbal abuse and physical violence in a dating relationship. Significant paths included family violence, adolescent delinquency, hostile masculinity, sexual promiscuity, and heavy alcohol use. Problem drinking behaviors emerged as the most influential variable in the path, predicting each form of aggression. Analyses were also conducted to examine the co-occurrence of aggression, and it was notable that there was no significant relationship between perpetration of sexual aggression and perpetration of physical violence, and no participants reported having engaged in both forms of violence. Several of the predictor variables were able to differentiate between men who engaged in various forms of violence, including adolescent delinquency, problem drinking, hostile attitudes toward women, and psychopathy. Implications for future research and prevention programming are also addressed.