Backman, E. L. and L. R. Backman (1997). "Sexual harassment and rape: A view from higher education." Levant, Ronald F [Ed]: 133-155.
(from the chapter) This chapter presents a brief examination of sexual harassment and rape from the perspective of the new psychology of men. We consider: (a) the way men are socialized; (b) the traditional masculinity ideology that men strive to meet; and (c) the corresponding traumas that result from a "failure to measure up," which affect how men relate sexually. When a man, as a result of these socially constructed norms, fails in his perceived ability to relate in a sexually effective manner, the resulting behaviors can be highly dysfunctional, or even violent. Our discussion of sexual harassment and date rape as a consequence of male socialization is from a higher education perspective, where these behaviors are acted out by both university employees and students. We use J. H. Pleck's gender role strain paradigm (1981, 1995) as the theoretical framework for a better understanding of why men harass and rape women. Finally, we examine existing programs and suggest others for the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment and acquaintance rape.
Beyer, C. E. and R. J. Ogletree (1998). "Sexual coercion content in 21 sexuality education curricula." J Sch Health 68(9): 370-375.
Sexual coercion, a topic of relevance to school health personnel, may be as common in high school populations as in university populations. Twenty-one sexuality education curricula were examined for information on the topics of date rape, stranger rape, pressure, incest, sexual harassment, unwanted/inappropriate touch, and exploitation/victimization. Curricula scoring highest in total coverage also were the most comprehensive with six of the seven sexual coercion topics covered. Overall, pressure and exploitation/victimization received the greatest attention, while sexual harassment was not covered in any of the curricula. Common themes occurring within the coercion topic areas included guilt, communication/assertiveness skills, blame, drug use, premeditation, fear, sources of help. Results suggest sexuality education curricula have not responded to the increased concern regarding sexual harassment in schools.
Brown, R. D. (2013). "College campuses are no longer ivory towers." PsycCRITIQUES 58(1): No Pagination Specified.
Reviews the book, Ending Campus Violence: New Approaches to Prevention by Brian Van Brunt (see record 2012-19807-000). This book is intended to assist student affairs professionals, including college counselors, psychologists, social workers, and campus administrators, in managing aggression and violence on their campuses. The book contains risk assessment guidelines, discusses how to identify aggression and violence, and provides descriptions of mandated educational programs for at-risk students. Van Brunt advocates a team approach to preventing campus violence and proposes creating three teams that focus on threat assessment, behavior intervention, and risk assessment. He presents 10 case studies that are commented on in detail by nine highly qualified experts among whose specialties include rampage shootings, behavioral analysis, counseling, student affairs, forensics, and legal affairs. The focus of the book is on factors that lead to homicides, primarily from shootings. Similar books and government and educational reports often include a broader definition of violence to include sexual violence (including date rape), bullying (including cyberbullying,) suicide, hazing, harassment, and stalking. Other similar books also discuss the impact that violence has on members of the campus community and provide examples of strategies on how campus administrators and staff can help heal a campus. This book would be a useful resource for academic classes and workshops for future and current campus community members who may be called on to prevent and/or manage a crisis due to campus violence. For a comprehensive approach, sources that go beyond gun violence in discussing campus violence and that consider how to heal the campus should be considered for supplementary reading and discussion.
Brubaker, S. J. (2009). "Sexual assault prevalence, reporting and policies: Comparing college and university campuses and military service academies." Security Journal 22(1): 56-72.
This article examines differences and similarities between college and university campuses and military service academies on several sexual assault issues. Based on meta-analyses of federal reports, the article provides a comparison of rates of sexual assault, reporting rates and barriers, and policy efforts in each setting. Specific influences on sexual assault incidents and reporting are identified in both settings, including male-dominated cultures as well as specific policies and practices around sexual assault prevention and response. The article concludes with a discussion of the overall implications for women's security on college campuses and at military service academies and recommendations for future research and policy.
Busch-Armendariz, N. B., et al. (2011). "Building community partnerships to end interpersonal violence: a collaboration of the schools of social work, law, and nursing." Violence Against Women 17(9): 1194-1206.
The article discusses the University of Texas at Austin's (UT Austin) Institute on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault (IDVSA), an institution that was established in 2001. IDVSA is a collaboration of the Schools of Social Work, Law, and Nursing, and 150 community affiliates. Recognizing that interpersonal violence does not occur in a vacuum, the IDVSA operates within an ecological framework in which explanations for interpersonal violence acknowledge that individuals and families are nested in larger mezzo and macro systems, and factors such as gender, poverty, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, and immigration status play influential roles in our understanding of these issues. The overarching goal is to advance knowledge and meaningful practice in the field through partnerships with survivors and community practitioners. Specifically, the mission is to advance the knowledge related to domestic violence and sexual assault in order to end interpersonal violence. IDVSA seeks to achieve its mission by focusing on three key areas: (1) rigorous research and scholarship on domestic violence and sexual assault; (2) comprehensive training, technical assistance, and information dissemination to the practitioner community and the community at large; and (3) substantial collaboration with our community partners. This article summarizes the authors' pursuit.
Calhoun, K. S., et al. (2012). "Sexual assault among college students." McAnulty, Richard D [Ed]: 263-288.
(from the chapter) This chapter addresses a widespread problem on college campuses, one that remains under-acknowledged even by its victims. Sexual assault is an all-too-common accompaniment to campus life in spite of attempts by many colleges and universities at education and prevention. Sexual assault has numerous negative consequences for students impacted by it as well as their friends and family. In this chapter we will review definitions, rates, risk factors, consequences, intervention, and prevention efforts. The major focus is on sexual assaults perpetrated by college men against college women, since this constitutes the vast majority of research and women are far more likely to be victims of sexual assault than men. We briefly discuss the more limited literature on sexual assault among diverse groups.
Carr, J. L., et al. (2007). "Campus violence white paper." Journal of American College Health 55(5): 304-319.
Jordan, C. E. (2011). "The University of Kentucky Center for Research on Violence Against Women: science inspired by women's stories." Violence Against Women 17(9): 1137-1158.
Research in the violence against women area has been undertaken for more than 30 years, but individual researchers who have made these scholarly contributions have not been advantaged by adequate attention, funding, or organizational structure within the university setting. This article offers a detailed description of a model of an interdisciplinary research center designed to provide an academic architecture within which research on intimate partner violence, sexual assault, stalking, and other forms of violence against women can flourish and advance. The article describes the impetus for creation of the University of Kentucky Center for Research on Violence Against Women, its current mission, organizational structure, financial operations, and initiatives related to research, education, and public service. Practical strategies for establishing and sustaining a center of this type are offered.
LaVant, B. (2001). "Understanding violence on the college campuses and strategies for prevention." Sandhu, Daya Singh [Ed]: 73-86.
(from the chapter) One of the primary issues that continue to plague institutions of higher education is violence. College campuses are not unlike other segments of our larger society, and it is not isolated from the negative images and personalities that continue to permeate American life. Nationwide, people are being victimized by abuse, assault, rape, harassment, and other destructive behaviors on college and university campuses. These behaviors are damaging to the learning environment and may cause irreparable harm to victims and to institutions of higher education. Each institution has the responsibility to determine their boundaries and roles in accordance with geographic location and any violent actions that fall under their concern. Colleges and universities can utilize preventative methods to reduce campus violence. Various essential prevention programs should include, but not be limited to, rape prevention, sexual decision-making, conflict resolution and communication skills, substance abuse awareness, and self-defense strategies. Other types of prevention programming involve raising awareness of campus violence, outlining the consequences and guidelines for acceptable and unacceptable behavior to all students, and providing medical and legal services to victims as well as perpetrators.
Lichty, L. F., et al. (2008). "Developing a university-wide institutional response to sexual assault and relationship violence." Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community 36(1-2): 5-22.
This article presents a process case study for developing a university-wide response to sexual assault and relationship violence. Following Kelly's (1988) approach to prevention work in community-settings, we began our work with in-depth ecological reconnaissance to understand our local context. Our case study described the processes used to develop an inclusive task force, conduct an environmental scan, and carry out a quantitative-qualitative needs assessment. Our processes for developing an institutional response for both direct services interventions and prevention are discussed in the context of Kelly's (1966, 1968, 2006) ecological principles of interdependence and cycling of resources.
McMahon, P. P. (2008). "Sexual violence on the college campus: A template for compliance with federal policy." Journal of American College Health 57(3): 361-365.
Objective: The author introduces a template, the Model Policy for the Prevention and Response to Sexual Assault, to assist institutions of higher education to benchmark campus policy compliance with federal laws directed at sexual assault. The author presents a detailed review of policy criteria recommended by the National Institute of Justice. The author proposes 2 unique criteria not found in the National Institute of Justice report for consideration for a comprehensive campus sexual assault policy. Conclusion: The template provides an inclusive system to benchmark campus sexual assault policies. Conforming to the template provides compliance with federal laws and demonstrates that the campus fosters a climate that does not tolerate sexual violence.
Oliver, E. (2011). Women's Choices Shattered: Impact of Gender Violence on Universities.
Paludi, M. A. (1996). "Sexual harassment on college campuses: Abusing the Ivory Power." 311.
(from the preface) Based on my work as a private consultant, I have seen the need for an updated version of "Ivory Power." . . . . The reader will note a change in the title for the 2nd edition-I wanted to put the words "Sexual Harassment" up front, to label the behaviors as they should be labeled. I also wanted to keep the literary phrase "Ivory Power." I thought it best to name what sexual harassment is on college campuses: an abuse of the power that accompanies the role of a professor. Since the 1st edition of "Ivory Power," there has been increased attention devoted to a topic only touched upon lightly a few years ago, namely, "consensual relationships" between faculty and students. Events in the last few years at Antioch College and the University of Virginia [have also] stimulated discussion of peer sexual harassment. All of the chapters in this edition focus on changing the way campuses deal with sexual harassment rather than on changing victim's perceptions of their experiences with their professors and classmates.
Paludi, M. A. (2008). "Understanding and preventing campus violence." 256.
(from the jacket) The shootings at Virginia Tech and Northern Illinois University have brought issues surrounding campus violence to the forefront once again. But campuses have always had problems with stalking, sexual harassment, bullying, rape, robbery, burglary, and intimate partner violence, among other things. In fact, the incidence rates of campus violence are quite startling. For example, the incidence of sexual harassment among undergraduate students ranges between 20 and 80 percent each year. Between 8 and 15 percent of college women say they have been raped. Fortunately, there are solutions to the problem of campus violence. Michele A. Paludi and a host of experts detail preventive procedures as well as methods that will enable readers and their friends, family members, and colleagues to stay safer on campus. In Understanding and Preventing Campus Violence, experts in law, HR/employment policy, psychology, criminal justice, and education offer sage, real-world advice to campus administrators, parents, students, and employees on how to prevent and manage campus violence. They offer insights into the reasons behind violent acts and provide prevention techniques, methods students can use to protect themselves, and therapeutic techniques for the following types of violence: bullying, sexual harassment, cyberstalking and cyber-harassment, intimate-partner violence, rape, homicide, robberies, and other violent crimes. Understanding and Preventing Campus Violence also addresses the legal responsibilities of schools, as well as the psychological fallout in the aftermath of violence. Featuring interviews with student victims and providing sample policies and training programs, this book will help students learn to spot situations of potential violence, help teachers use classroom exercises to raise awareness and prevent future violence, and help college administrators and managers learn to safeguard the people and assets in their care.
Payne, B. K. (2008). "Challenges responding to sexual violence: Differences between college campuses and communities." Journal of Criminal Justice 36(3): 224-230.
To increase understanding about the response to sexual assault, five focus group interviews were conducted with community-based sexual assault workers as well as officials affiliated with colleges and universities throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia. Attention was given to the differences in collaboration challenges confronted by those serving college students and those serving the general population. Results suggested that while the needs of the two types of workers are similar, the types of collaboration challenges confronted varied according to the cultural and spatial dynamics of each setting. College campus sexual assault workers confronted one set of obstacles, while community-based workers confronted a different set. Ways to address these challenges are considered. Implications focus on the development of protocol, increased funding, and collaborative training. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Potter, R. H., et al. (2000). "Examining elements of campus sexual violence policies: Is deterrence or health promotion favored?" Violence Against Women 6(12): 1345-1362.
The promulgation of sexual violence policies can be viewed from both criminal justice and public health perspectives. The public health model focuses on prevention through health promotion in contrast to a criminal justice analysis based primarily on deterrence. Because each perspective has a unique focus, policies may have different implications and outcomes. This study subjects campus sexual violence policies to analysis from public health and criminal justice perspectives. Campus sexual violence policies were obtained from a sample of 100 US colleges and universities in 1998. A descriptive analysis of the types of sexual violence prevention programs and dissemination of knowledge about the policies is presented. Data on actual policies collected were analyzed employing content analytic techniques. Overall, deterrence-based prevention efforts were the most common element, followed by risk- or opportunity-reduction approaches. Implications for campus sexual violence prevention efforts of merging the public health and criminal justice approaches are discussed.
Vickio, C. J., et al. (1999). "Combating sexual offenses on the college campus: Keys to success." Journal of American College Health 47(6): 283-286.
The authors emphasize the need for programs to prevent sexual offenses at institutions of higher education. They briefly describe efforts underway at Bowling Green State University and offer 6 strategies for improving the likelihood of success in sexual assault education, prevention, and response efforts.